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Unto?  rattg  of  Ptttsburglf 

Darlington  Memorial  Library 

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FORT  WAYNE,  IN  1804. 



H  ' 



T.    ELLW  0  0  D    ZELL, 

Nos.17  and  19  South  Sixth  Street. 






r     Many  of  my  friends  having  been   solicitous 
^for  the  privilege  of  a  perusal  of  the  minutes  I 

preserved  in  the  course  of  my  late  visit  to  the 

Western  Indians,  I  have  been  induced  to  devote 
5^  a  small  portion  of  leisure  time  to  the  purpose  of 
■A  attempting  such  an  arrangement  of  them,  as 
^  V70uld  convey,  intelligibly,  both   the    route  we 

took,  and  the  various  circumstances  attending 

upon  our  journey. 
^    The  judicious   reader   will    doubtless    make 
J^roper  allowances   for  the   difficulty  there  is  in 
^composing  an  entertaining  diary  over  that  of  a 
Y^history,  where  circumstances  are  not  necessarily 

confined  to  day  and  time. 
^      As  a  suitable  introduction  to  my  Journal,  I 
^^  deem  it  proper  to  insert  the  following  letter.    It 
L^  will    serve   to  show  the  intercourse  which  had 
!X.previously    taken     place    between    the    Indian 

Committee  of  Baltimore   Yearly   Meeting    and^ 

some  of  the  Indian  chiefs  of  the  Western  tribes.' 


"  The  Lime  Turtle's  Toim,  Sept.  18th,  1803. 
-From   the   Little   Turtle,    The   Five    Medals,    and 
others,    to   Evan  Thomas,    George    Ellicott,    and 

"  Brothel's  and  Friends  of  our  hearts, — We 
iKive  received  your  speech  from  the  hand  of  our 
friend,  Wui.  Wells,  with  the  implements  of 
husbandry,  that  you  were  so  kind  to  send  to  his 
care, — all  in  good  order. 

'^  Brothers,  it  is  our  wish  that  the  Great  Spirit 
will  enable  you  to  render  to  your  Red  Brethren 
that  service  which  you  appear  to  be  so  desirous 
of  doing  them,  and  which  their  women  and 
children  are  so  much  in  need  of. 

'•  Brothers,  we  will  try  to  use  the  articles  you 
have  sent  us,  and  if  we  should  want  more,  we 
will  let  you  know  it. 

''  Brothers,  we  are  sorry  to  say  that  the  minds 
of  our  people  are  not  so  much  inclined  towards 
the  cultivation  of  the  earth  as  we  could  wish 

''  Brothers,  our  Father,  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  has  prevented  our  traders  from 
selling  liquor  to  our  people,  which  is  the  best 
thing  he  could  do  for  his  Red  Children. 

"Brothers,  our  people  appear  dissatisfied,  be- 
cause our  traders  do  not,  as  usual,  bring  them 
liquor,  and,  we  believe,  will  request  our  Father 
to  let  the  traders  bring  them  liquor,  and  if  he 
does,  your  Red  Brethren  are  all  lost  forever. 

"  Brothers,  you  will  see,  from  what  we  have 


said,  that  our  prospects  are  bad  at  present, 
though  we  hope  the  Great  Spirit  will  change  the 
minds  of  our  people,  and  tell  them  it  will  be 
better  for  them  to  cultivate  the  earth  than  to 
drink  whiskey. 

'<  Brothers,  we  hope  the  Great  Spirit  will  per- 
mit some  of  you  to  come  and  see  us, — when  you 
will  be  able  to  know  whether  you  can  do  any- 
thing for  us  or  not, 

"  Brothers,  we  delivered  you  the  sentiments  of 
our  hearts,  when  we  spoke  to  you  at  Baltimore,* 
and  shall  say  nothing  more  to  you  at  present. 
We  now  take  you  by  the  hand,  and  thank  you 
for  the  articles  you  were  so  kind  to  send  us. 
^'  Signed, 

''  The  Little  Turtle,  Miami  CMef, 

"The  Five  Medals,  Potowatamy  Chief  J' 

This  letter  having  claimed  the  solid  consider- 
ation of  the  Committee  on  Indian  AiFairs,  at  a 
meeting  held  in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  the  6th 
of  2d  month,  1804,  the  following  conclusion 
and  minute  was,  at  that  time,  the  result  of  their 
deliberations : 

"  The  subject  of  a  visit  to  the  Indians,  agreea- 
bly to  the  desire  they  express  in  the  aforegoing 
letter,  being  solidly  considered,  the  Committee 
are  united  in  judgment,  that  a  visit  to  them  at 
this  time  would  be  the  most  likely  means  of  ob- 

*See  Appendix. 
1*     • 


taining  a  knowledge  of  the  disposition  they  are 
in,  and  enable  Friends  to  ascertain  what  would 
be  the  best  course  to  pursue  to  be  useful  to  them. 
The  following  Friends  are  therefore  nominated 
to  that  service,  and  requested  to  proceed  in  the 
visit  as  soon  as  convenient,  to  wit:  George 
Ellieott,  Gerard  T.  Hopkins,  Joel  Wright,  and 
Elisha  Tyson. 

''  They  are  also  authorized  to  take  one  or  more 
suitable  persons  with  them  to  reside  amongst  the 
Indians,  to  instruct  them  in  agriculture  and 
other  useful  knowledge,  if  there  should  appear 
to  be  a  prospect  of  such  an  establishment  being 
beneficial  to  them." 

My  name  having  been  entered  upon  the  minute, 
and  thus  placed  upon  this  very  interestingappoiot- 
ment,  was  to  me  a  subject  of  much  thoughtful- 
ness  and  exercise;  and  believing  finally  that  the 
peace  of  my  own  mind  was  concerned  in  a  pas- 
sive submission  to  the  judgment  of  my  friends, 
I  accordingly  made  provision  for  the  journey, 
and  on  the  23d  of  the  2d  month,  1804,  left  my 
home  J  first  witnessing  those  sensations  due  to 
human  nature,  in  an  afi'ectionate  farewell  to  my 
family  connexions  and  friends ;  rode  to  Ellicott's 
Mills,  and  joined  my  friend,  George  Ellieott, 
from  whence  we  proceeded  on  our  journey ;  taking 
with  us  Philip  Denis,  a  member  of  our  So- 
ciety, who  has  concluded  to  accompany  us,  for 
the  purpose  of  residing  with  the  Indians,  in  order 
to  instruct  them  in  agriculture;  reached  Brooke- 


ville,  and  lodged  at  Caleb  Bentlej's — making 
27  miles.  The  weather  cold,  with  some  snow. 
Nothing  remarkable  occurred,  except  that,  in 
crossing  a  miry  glade,  my  horse  fell  and  threw 
me  ;  neither  of  us  received  a  hurt. 

2d  mo.  24th.  Bade  farewell  to  my  relatives 
and  connexions  at  Brookeville,  and  rode  to  Now- 
land's  Ferry — 28  miles — a  very  muddy  and  cold 
day.  The  high  wind  preventing  us  from  cross- 
ing the  Potomac  river,  we  rode  to  the  house  of 
George  Lepley,  a  neighboring  farmer,  where  we 
found  good  accommodations,  and  were  kindly 

25th.  Crossed  the  Potomac  early  this  morn- 
ing, passed  over  the  Catoctin  mountain,  taking 
the  village  of  Waterford  in  our  way;  thence 
through  the  gap  of  the  Short  Hill,  over  the  Blue 
Ridge  to  Warmsley's  Ferry  over  the  Shenandoah 
river ;  thence  across  the  Shenandoah  to  the 
house  of  our  friend,  John  McPherson,  a  dis- 
tance of  29  miles.  This  day's  journey  has  been 
highly  entertaining;  mountain  rising  above 
mountain,  and  farm  above  farm,  till  we  reached 
the  summit  of  the  Blue  Bidge,  from  whence 
a  most  extensive  and  beautiful  prospect  of  the 
country,  both  on  the  east  and  west  side  of  the 
mountain,  was  full  in  view.  From  the  top  of 
this  commanding  eminence,  we  were  the  specta- 
tors of  a  beautiful  natural  scene.  A  cloud,  small 
in  its  appearance,  passing  nearly  upon  a  level 
with   our   elevation,  cast    its  shadow  upon  the 


Goose  Creek  settlement  below,  for  several  miles 
in  extent.  The  precise  shape  of  the  cloud,  with 
all  its  indentations,  was  visible  in  the  shadow  ; 
the  indentations  bearing  the  same  enlarged  pro- 
portions, with  the  shadow,  to  the  cloud. 

An  extraordinary  deceptibility  in  human 
vision  is  evident,  in  a  view  of  the  Shenandoah 
river,  from  the  summit  of  the  Blue  Ridge.  The 
river,  in  the  estimation  of  some  of  our  company, 
did  not  appear  to  be  further  from  us  than  the 
distance  of  half  a  mile,  and  it  proved  to  be  not 
nearer  than  three  or  four  miles. 

26th.  Passed  across  the  Shenandoah  valley, 
a  body  of  excellent  limestone  land.  This  valley 
is  several  hundred  miles  in  length,  and  general- 
ly from  20  to  25  miles  in  width,  lying  between 
the  Blue  Ridge  and  the  North  Mountains. 
Many  parts  of  it  retain  to  this  day  the  name  of 
barrens,  though  now  heavily  timbered,  being,  at 
the  time  the  land  was  taken  up,  covered  with 
scrubby  bushes.  On  our  way  we  crossed  a  small 
river  called  the  Opekon, — and  it  being  the  first 
day  of  the  week,  we  attended  the  Ridge  Meeting 
of  Friends,  after  which  we  spent  the  remainder  of 
the  day,  and  lodged  at  night,  at  the  house  of  our 
friend,  David  Lupton,  at  the  foot  of  the  North 
Mountain, — having  travelled  18  miles.  One  of 
our  horses  faltered  this  morning,  having  been 
too  well  fed  at  last  night's  quarters. 

27th.  This  day  travelled  31  miles,  and  lodged 



at  Clayton's  Ordinary,'*'  having  crossed  the 
North  Mountain,  Timber  Ridge,  Sandy  Ridge 
and  Capon  Mountain  ]  also  forded  Great  Capon 
river  and  North  river.  Our  road  led  us  through 
several  long  and  narrow  valleys^  which  were  well 
limbered  and  rich;  we  have  also  passed  large 
tracts  of  mountainous,  uncultivated,  and,  doubt- 
less never  to  be  cultivated  land.  It  is  said  deer 
are  very  plenty  in  the  tract  through  which  we 
have  passed  to-day,  but  none  were  discovered  by 
us.  Upon  some  of  the  mountains,  and  also  in 
the  valleys,  we  observed  a  few  tolerably  well- 
looking  farms ;  we  have  also  noticed  several 
small  "sugar  camps  in  the  course  of  this  day's 

28th.  Continued  our  journey, — forded  the 
Little  Capon  river,  the  south  branch  of  Poto- 
mac, Patterson's  creek,  and  the  north  branch  of 
Potomac.  We  also  travelled  over  Little  Capon 
Mountain,  South  Branch  Mountain  and  North 
Branch  Mountain,  passing  through  Springfield, 
Frankford  and  Cresapsburg  villages,  reaching 
Musselman's  tavern,  near  the  foot  of  the  Alle- 
ghany Mountains  ;  making  a  journey  of  37  miles. 

A  snow  has  been  falling  for  some  hours  upon 
the  remains  of  a  former  snow  ten  inches  in 
depth.  Our  journey  to-day  has  been  very  en- 
tertaining, notwithstanding   the  severity  of  the 

^"An  Ordinary,  is  another  name  for  a  bouse  afford- 
ino;  indifferent  entertainment. 


weather,  and  the  danger  at  this  time  attendant, 
on  climbing  up  and  descending  precipices. 

There  is  much  in  a  journey  over  these  moun- 
tains to  puzzle,  as  well  as  amuse,  the  naturalist. 
Many  extraordinary  natural  curiosities  have 
fallen  under  our  observation,  in  the  diversified 
appearance  of  mountains,  rocks  and  valleys.  We 
have  passed  to-day  the  most  ponderous,  craggy  and 
over-jutting  rocks  we  have  heretofore  met  with, 
many  of  which  were  elevated  several  hundred 
feet  above  our  heads,  and  seemed  to  threaten  us 
with  impending  danger;  which  was  not  a  little 
magnified,  in  our  apprehensions,  from  observing 
vast  bodies  of  rock,  which  had  evidently  tum- 
bled from  their  lofty  summits  into  the  valleys. 
Had  we  been  disposed  to  indulge  fancy,  we 
might  have  figured  to  ourselves,  in  a  view  of 
these  rude  mountains  of  rocks,  many  of  those 
descriptions  met  with  in  Eoman,  Greek  or 
Egyptian  history,  of  amphitheatres,  obelisks, 
pyramids,  &e.  &c. ;  whil>t  many  others  exhibit- 
ed such  regular,  wavy  appearances,  interspersed 
alternately  with  oaks  and  pines,  and  soil  of 
various  hues,  as  seemed  to  challenge  the  painter 
with  his  diversified  shades  of  coloring.  And  could 
we  have  observed  here  goats,  white  bears  and 
reindeer,  with  now  and  then  a  human  being 
clothed  in  skins  and  furs,  and  with  weather  a 
little  colder,  we  might,  perhaps,  have  been  led 
to  suppose  ourselves  in  Lapland.  A  few  settle- 
ments are  made  in  this  tract,  which  are  mostly 


in  tlie  valleys.  Deer  are  said  to  be  very  numerous 
upon  tliese  mountains — several  were  seen  by  us. 
We  also  observed  seats  erected  in  the  branches 
of  the  trees  by  the  hunters,  twenty  feet  in  height, 
being  concealed  stations  for  the  purpose  of  shoot- 
ing deer  at  the  Salt  Licks.  We  have  also  seen 
several  flocks  of  turkeys  and  pigeons  in  vast 

29th.  Travelled  thirty  miles  upon  the  Alle- 
ghany Mountains,  and  at  night  lodged  at  Smith's 
Ordinary.  We  have  to-day  passed  through  land 
heavily  timbered,  tolerably  level,  and  said  to  be 
rich  and  clear  of  stone  j  of  this,  the  snow  pre- 
vented us  from  judging.  We  also  crossed  over  that 
part  of  the  Alleghany  ridge  which  divides  the 
eastern  and  western  waters  of  our  continent — 
the  streams  all  bearing  a  right  hand  direction. 
Near  this  part  of  the  mountain,  our  road  led  us 
through  the  most  beautiful  and  lofty  forest  of 
spruce  and  pine  I  ever  saw.  This  forest  is  call- 
ed the  Shades.  The  trees  are  generally  from 
108  to  180  feet  in  height,  many  of  them  without 
a  limb  for  100  feet  in  height,  with  a  body  not 
more  than  12  inches  in  diameter  at  the  surface 
of  the  earth. 

We  also  forded  one  of  the  branches  of  the 
Youghiogany  river,  called  the  Little  Crossings, 
The  principal  ridges  which  we  passed  are  called 
by  the  mountaineers  the  Back-bone  Ridge,  (from 
Its  sharp  elevation,)  the  Winding  Ridge  and  the 
Negro  Mountain.     On  inquiring  into  the  origin 


of  the  Dame  of  the  latter,  we  were  informed, 
that  many  years  ago,  a  white  man  and  a  negro 
who  were  bunting  together,  accidentally  fell  in 
with  an  Indian  upon  this  ridge  who  was  armed  ; 
both  the  negro  and  the  Indian  betook  them- 
selves to  trees,  presented  their  guns  at  each 
other,  and  fired  at  the  same  moment,  and  both 
fell  dead.  Their  images  are  cut  upon  the  trees 
behind  which  they  fell,  as  a  memento  of  the 
circumstance.  The  ridge  has  ever  since  been 
called  the  Negro  Mountain. 

Deer  and  turkies  are  numerous  upon  these 
mountains.  The  hunters  have  in  many  places 
erected  seats,  as  heretofore  described,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  shooting  deer. 

Over  the  gieater  part  of  our  journey  to-day 
we  have  found  snow  two  feet  in  depth,  A  tolera- 
ble track  is  however  beaten  for  us  by  a  descrip- 
tion of  pedlars,  who  pass  by  the  name  of  Packers. 
These  people  carry  on  a  considerable  trade  be- 
tween the  Redstone  settlements  and  Winchester, 
in  Virginia,  as  also  with  several  other  villages 
in  the  western  part  of  that  State. 

They  take  with  them  upon  horses,  bags  of 
flax,  which  article  they  purchase  at  Redstone  at 
a  low  price  ;  this  they  dispose  of  at  an  advance, 
and  in  return  carry  salt,  for  which  they  are  well 
paid  at  Redstone.  It  is  not  unusual  to  meet  a 
Packer,  having  under  his  direction  half  a  dozen 
loaded  horses.  These  animals  on  meeting  travel- 
lers, do  not  turn  aside  from  the  beaten  path.   We 


were  several  times  uader  difl&culties  in  making 
our  way  through  the  snow  on  their  account. 

3d  mo.  1st.  This  day  we  travelled  thirty-six 
miles,  passed  through  the  villages  Woodstack 
and  IJniontown,  and  after  night  reached  the 
house  of  our  friend,  Jonah  Cadwalader,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Redstone,  Old  Fort,  and  near 
the  Monongahela  river.  On  our  way  we  passed 
a  place  called  the  Great  3Ieadows,  upon  the 
Alleghany  Mountains.  This  place  is  noted  for 
an  entrenchment,  cast  up  by  General  Washing- 
ton, then  Colonel  Washington,  when  retreating 
from  a  defeat  given  to  a  small  force  under  his 
command,  (near  the  junction  of  the  Alleghany 
and  Monongahela  rivers,)  history  says  by  a  much 
superior  body  of  French  and  Indians.  We  also 
passed  over  the  spot  where  Gen.  Braddock  was 
buried.  His  army  of  1200  chosen  men  was  de- 
feated near  Fort  Du  Quesne,  in  an  unexpected 
attack  by  the  Indians.  We  are  told  that  the 
General  and  half  this  number  were  killed,  and 
sixty-four  out  of  eighty-five  of  his  oflBcers  ;  of 
those  who  escaped  was  Washington,  at  the  time 
Aid-de-Camp  to  General  Braddock.  The  de- 
feated army  brought  off  their  dead  commander 
and  buried  him  in  the  road,  in  order  to  elude 
the  search  of  the  Indians  for  his  dead  body. 

It  may  be  remarked  that  the  land  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  Great  Meadows  is  very 
level  and  the  timber  heavy,  which  indicates  the 
goodness  of  the  soil.     A  considerable  body  of 


this  land  was  owned  by  Washington  at  the  time 
of  his  death. 

This  day's  journey  has  been  very  disagreeable 
and  cold,  owing  to  a  continued  fall  of  snow. 
AVe  greatly  regretted  that  the  clouds  prevented 
a  view  of  the  Redstone  settlements  from  the  top 
of  Laurel  Hill,  this  being  that  part  of  the  Alle- 
ghany Mountains  from  which  a  descent  is  made 
into  the  country  below.  From  this  commanding 
eminence  the  prospect,  we  are  told,  is  beautiful 
beyond  description. 

Our  disappointment,  however,  was  in  some 
measure  recompensed  by  finding  ourselves,  when 
upon  the  top  of  this  hill,  not  only  above  the 
clouds,  but  also  so  elevated  in  a  cloud  as  to  find 
the  particles  of  snow  resembling  fog;  a  proof 
that  large  spits  of  snow,  as  they  are  called,  ac- 
quire their  size  by  an  accumulation  of  particles 
on  their  way  from  the  clouds  to  the  earth.  I  may 
here  mention,  that  the  difficulties  and  fatigues 
of  our  journey  thus  far  have  been  rendered  light 
by  the  agreeable  company  of  my  brother-in-law, 
Thomas  Moore,  and  our  esteemed  friend,  Israel 
Janney,  the  former  joining  us  at  Brookeville, 
and  the  latter  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley.  They 
are  complying  with  an  appointment  by  our  late 
Yearly  Meeting,  in  a  visit  to  a  Quarterly  Meet- 
ing at  Redstone. 

From  the  1st  to  the  8th  of  the  month,  we 
rested  at  Redstone,  a  rest  useful  to  our  horses 
as  well  as  to  ourselves.     In  the  course  of  this 


interval,  we  attended  Redstone  Quarterly  Meet- 
ing. There  were  present  several  Friends  from 
the  State  of  Ohio,  who  reside  upon  a  part  of  the 
tra<3t  of  country  called  the  Seven  Ranges.  They 
informed  us  that  the  Indian  Chief,  Tarhie,*  a 
Wyandot  of  great  distinction,  with  about  one 
hundred  hunters,  mostly  of  the  Wyandot  nation, 
were  hunting  bears  upon  a  branch  of  the  Big 
Beaver,  called  Mahoning,  within  about  twenty 
miles  of  their  settlement,  and  that  a  fall  of  snow 
three  feet  in  depth  had  placed  them  in  a  suffer- 
ing condition,  they  not  making  provision  at  their 
camp  for  such  an  event.  In  this  situation  the 
Friends  received  the  following  letter  from  Tar- 

"  My  dear  Brothers,  Quakers,  listen  to  what 
I  now  say  to  you.  You  always  called  us  Indians 
your  brothers,  and  now,  dear  white  brothers,  I 
am  in  distress,  and  all  my  young  men  who  are 
with  me. 

"  Brothers,  will  you  please  to  help  me  to  fill 
my  kettles  and  my  horses'  troughs,  for  I  am  afraid 
my  horses  will  not  be  able  to  carry  me  home 

"  Neighbors,  will  you  please  to  give,  if  it  is 

*This  was  Tarhie,  (or  the  Crane,)  Chief  of  the 
Wyandots,  whom  Evan  Thomas,  and  other  members 
of  the  Indian  Committee  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meet- 
^ing,  visited  at  Upper  Sandusky,  in  the  6th  month, 
1799,  and  of  which  a  report  was  published  in  that 
year.    See  Appendix. 


but  a  handful  a  piece,  and  fetch  it  out  to  us,  for 
nij  horses  are  not  able  to  come  after  it. 

"  This  is  all  I  have  to  say  at  present. 


"  To  my  Brothers,  the  Quakers." 

About  the  time  of  the  reception  of  this  letter, 
some  Friends,  who  resided  nearest  to  their  hunt- 
ing camp,  furnished  them  with  a  small  supply 
of  provisions,  which  occasioned  a  second  letter 
from  Tarhie,  as  follows  : 

"  Brother  Quakers,  I  have  a  few  more  words 
to  say  to  you. 

"  Brothers,  T  want  that  you  should  all  know 
what  distress  I  am  in. 

"  Brothers,  I  want  you  to  know  I  have  got 
help  from  some  of  my  near  neighbors. 

"  Brothers,  I  would  be  glad  to  know  what  you 
will  do  for  me,  if  it  is  but  a  little. 

"  Brothers,  if  you  cannot  come  soon,  it  will 
do  bye  and  bye,  for  my  belly  is  now  full. 

"  Brothers,  I  hope  you  have  not  forgot  our 
great  fathers;  when  they  first  met,  it  was  in 
friendship  ;  we  are  of  the  same  race. 

"  My  Brothers,  Quakers,  I  hope  our  friendship 
will  last  as  long  as  the  world  stands.  All  I  have 
to  say  to  you  now  is,  that  I  shall  stay  here  until 
two  more  moons  are  gone.  "  Tarhie. 

'^  Addressed  to  my  Brothers,  the  Quakers.^' 

A  considerable  quantity  of  provisions  were 
furnished    by  the  Friends  to  these  Indians,  for 


whicli  they  expressed  great  thankfulness.  Tar- 
hie  himself  divided  the  presents  between  man 
and  man,  making  no  difference  for  distinction 
in  rank. 

These  Friends  were  informed  by  Tarhie,  that 
several  years  ago  he  had  sent  a  talk  to  the  In- 
dian Committee  at  Baltimore,  accompanied  by  a 
belt  of  wampum,  worth  fifty  dollars,  and  had 
long  been  waiting  for  an  answer,  but  had  not 
yet  received  one. 

In  consequence  of  this  information,  a  confer- 
ence was  held  at  Redstone,  between  such  of  the 
members  of  the  Indian  Committee  as  could  be 
convened  there.  The  result  was  a  request  made 
to  four  Friends  of  the  neighborhood  adjacent  to 
the  Indian  camp,  to  visit  Tarhie,  and  inform  him 
that  his  talk  was  not  received  by  the  Indian 
Committee,  and  that  his  belt  of  wampum  never 
came  to  their  hands.  Also,  if  he  had  any  thing 
now  to  say,  he  must  write  again  to  the  Indian 

During  our  stay  at  Redstone,  we  had  an  op- 
portunity of  seeing  and  admiring  the  richness 
of  the  land  between  the  foot  of  the  Alleghany 
Mountains  and  the  Monongahela  River.  The 
people  here  seem  to  live  in  ease  and  plenty,  and 
there  is  scarcely  a  plantation  that  does  not  afford 
stone  coal  and  sugar  trees.  The  coal  is,  I  think, 
fully  equal  in  quality  to  the  best  Liverpool  coal, 
and  is  generally  used  for  fuel  in  the  place  of 
wood;  it  being  much  easier  and  cheaper  to  pro- 

18  .     JOURNAL  OF  A  VISIT  TO 

cure  a  supply  of  coal,  than  to  procure  wood,  not- 
withstanding that  article  is  in  great  plenty  here. 

The  sugar  trees  afford  sugar  in  plenty  to  those 
who  are  sufficiently  industrious  to  make  it.  Many 
families,  we  are  told,  make  from  five  hundred  to 
a  thousand  pounds,  and  others  make  from  eight- 
een to  twenty-five  hundred  weight,  every  spring. 
The  trees  do  not  appear  to  be  injured  by  draw- 
ing off  the  sap.  Molasses  of  excellent  quality 
is  also  made  from  this  tree,  and  also  smajj  beer, 
equal  to  any  thing  of  the  kind  we  met  with  at 
this  place,  produced  from  the  sap. 

Shall  I  say,  a  proof  of  the  instability  of  the 
human  mind,  under  the  most  bountiful  supply  of 
temporal  blessings,  is  to  be  drawn  from  the  pre- 
sent disposition  of  the  inhabitants  of  Redstone  ? 
Blest  with  a  country  rich  and  fruitful,  and  posses- 
sing other  great  natural  advantages,  there  is 
nevertheless  a  general  feeling  of  discontent.  The 
new  country  beyond  the  Ohio,  lately  opened  for 
sale,  has  set  the  general  mind  afloat.  We  saw 
people  who  were  well  settled,  and  who  some 
years  ago,  too,  had  passed  the  meridian  of  life, 
strongly  affected  with  the  prevailing  mania. 

9th.  The  river  Monongahela  not  having  yet 
risen,  we  are  greatly  disappointed  in  our  wish 
and  intention  to  take  boat  at  Redstone  for  the 
mouth  of  the  Miami  of  the  Ohio.  We  have, 
therefore,  no  other  alternative  than  to  prosecute 
a  long  and  doubtless  fatiguing  journey  by  land. 
This  morning,  whilst  we  were  preparing  to  pro- 


eed  on  our  route,  two  young  men  arrived  at  our 
quarters,  for  the  purpose  of  accompanying  us  ; 
one  of  them  a  blacksmith,  and  a  member  of  our 
Society,  the  other  a  carpenter,  and  a  steady  young 
man.  They  are  under  the  pay  of  government, 
and  have  engaged  to  reside  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Fort  Wayne,  to  be  employed  for  the  benefit 
and  instruction  of  the  Indians.  Previous  to  our 
leaving  home,  we  had  reason  to  expect  that  we 
should  be  overtaken  by  these  young  men,  and 
were  glad  to  have  our  expectations  realized. 

Again  proceeding  on  our  journey,  we  passed 
through  Brownsville,  a  village  on  the  Mononga- 
hela  River;  crossed  over  that  river  in  a  boat,  and 
rode  about  twenty-six  miles  to  Washington,  an 
inland  town.  Our  ride  to-day  has  been  through 
a  very  hilly  country,  tolerably  rich,  though  badly 
watered.  It  is  said  that  one  of  the  first  survey- 
ors of  this  tract  of  country,  when  questioned  re- 
specting its  geoeral  appearance,  replied,  "  It  is 
like  a  large  meadow  filled  with  stacks  of  hay." 
A  comparison  very  apropos. 

It  is  worthy  of  remark,  that  near  Brownsville, 
on  the  Monongahela,  are  the  remains  of  an  old 
fortification,  including  several  acres  of  ground. 
Mussel  shells  are  yet  very  abundant  within  the 
intrenchment ;  and  nearly  opposite  to  the  forti- 
fication are  two  fish  pots  extending  quite  across 
the  river  ;  they  are  made  of  stone,  weighing  gene- 
rally from  thirty  to  forty  pounds.  It  is  said  that 
the  Indians  who  resided  near  the  spot  at  the  time 


of  its  discovery  by  the  white  men,  had  not  even 
a  traditional  knowledge  of  the  making  of  these 
fish  pots,  nor  of  the  erection  of  the  fortification. 

This  day,  in  passing  along,  my  mind  has  been 
involved  in  much  serious  reflection  on  the  im- 
portance of  our  mission.  And  I  trust  I  have  in 
no  small  degree  felt  the  responsibility  we  are 
under,  not  to  men  only,  but  to  the  Great  Author 
of  all  good,  with  an  ardency  not  to  be  expressed, 
that  we  may  indeed  discharge  the  trust  reposed 
in  us,  and  perform  the  duty  required  of  us  with 

10th.  Travelled  thirty-four  miles,  and  after 
night  were  glad  to  reach  the  house  of  our  friend 
Jonathan  Taylor,  in  the  State  of  Ohio  ;  on  our 
way  we  passed  through  the  small  villages  of  Tay- 
lorstown  and  West  Liberty.  The  tract  of  coun- 
try through  which  we  have  travelled  is  generally 
fertile  and  is  mostly  settled.  In  the  course  of 
this  day's  ride^  it  is  observable  that  limestone  is 
to  be  found  on  the  tops  of  the  highest  hills,  but 
is  rarely  found  in  the  bottoms. 

It  may  now  be  noted  th;it  the  hills  between 
the  Monongahela  and  the  Ohio  rivers  are  gene- 
rally of  a  very  singular  description,  having  two 
or  three  circular  elevations,  the  surface  of  each 
elevation  fiat  for  the  space  of  twenty-five  to 
thirty  feet  in  diameter.  These  fiat  appearances 
extend  quite  around  the  circumference  of  the 
hills,  and  seem  to  vie  with  art  for  regularity. 

This  day  we  crossed  in  a  boat  the  great  river 


Ohio,  On  approaching  it,  I  felt  no  small  degree 
of  awe.  The  slow  and  majestic  movement  of  so 
vast  a  body  of  running  water,  added  to  the  re- 
colleotion  of  the  blood  which  had  been  spilt  re- 
lative to  its  shores,  enforced  the  sensation.  With 
what  obstinacy  the  poor  Indians  resisted  the  de- 
signs of  the  white  men  in  making  settlements 
west  of  this  river  I  Having  been  driven  further 
and  further  westward,  relinquished  claim  to  tract  ■ 
after  tract,  they  here  made  a  stand,  fixed  in  a  re- 
solve, hitherto  ye  may  come,  but  no  farther  ! 
This  river  shall  be  the  boundary  between  us  ! 
It  shall  limit  your  encroachment !  The  resist- 
ance they  made,  and  the  blood  which  was  spilt, 
sufficiently  prove  the  reluctance  with  which  they 
gave  up  the  contest.  The  bottom  upon  the  west 
side  of  the  river  where  we  crossed,  which  was  at 
the  junction  of  Short  Creek,  is  very  rich,  bat  not 
wide.  In  this  bottom  we  observed  a  mound  of 
earth  cast  up  to  the  height  of  fifteen  feet,  its 
diameter  at  the  base  forty-five  feet,  and  said  to 
be  a  burial  place,  but  whether  made  by  the  In- 
dians or  not  is  not  ascertained.  It  is  said  that 
two  miles  below  this  is  a  square  fortification 
containing  several  acres  of  ground,  enclosed  by 
a  bank  of  earth  thrown  up  by  a'rt  to  the  height 
of  eight  feet. 

Along  the  east  shore  of  the  river  great  de- 
struction was  made  a  few  years  ago  by  a  species 
of  caterpillar  which  infested  the  trees.  They 
fed  upon   the    leaves,  and   thus  killed   trees  ot 



enormous  size.  Their  havoc  extended  for  many 
miles  along  the  river,  and  reached  about  seven 
or  eight  miles  from  the  shore. 

11th.  This  day  being  First-day,  we  rested 
ourselves  and  hoises,  and  vrere  glad  to  have  an 
opportunity  of  attending  a  meeting  of  Friends, 
called  Short  Creek  Meeting,  A  Monthly  Meet- 
ing is  lately  established  here  by  Redstone  Quar- 
terly Meeting.  About  forty  Friends  were  at: 
this  meeting,  and  most  of  them  were  new  settlers. 
The  greater  number  had  moved  from  North 
Carolina.  The  meeting  was  held  in  a  log  house 
or  cabin,  situated  upon  a  beautiful  hill,  covered 
with  lofty  timber.  The  difficulties  and  incon- 
veniences of  a  new  settlement,  are  rendered  the 
more  easy  and  tolerable,  where,  as  in  the  instance 
of  these  Friends,  a  number  of  families,  by  agree- 
ment, form  a  settlement  in  the  same  neighbor- 
hood. In  the  afternoon  several  of  them  visited 
us  at  our  lodgings,  and  expressed  sympathy  with 
us  in  our  undertaking. 

12th.  Proceeded  on  our  journey  ;  travelled 
thirty-one  miles  and  reached  Randallstown  ;  part 
of  the  day  has  been  rainy,  and  the  riding  very 
disagreeable.  We  have  passed  through  a  body 
of  land  heavily  timbered  and  very  rich.  There 
are  yet  but  few  settlements  made  on  this  tract. 
The  fiist  settlers  in  this  new  country  erect  small 
log  cabins,  which  they  cover  with  split  timber 
called  puncheons;  these  they  pin    to  the  rafters | 


with  wooden  pins.  Nails  are  rarely  to  be  found 
in  any  part  of  the  house.  Their  floors  are  hewn 
out  of  the  timber,  and  pinned  to  the  sleepers 
with  wooden  pins.  They  clear  their  land  by 
killing  the  timber,  which  is  done  by  girdling  the 
trees,  that  is  by  cutting  the  bark  around  the 
trees  to  the  wood.  They  then  proceed  to  the 
cultivation  of  the  soil,  which  produces  them  abun- 
dant crops. 

It  is  a  common  practice  with  them  to  sow 
small  grain  upon  the  original  surface,  which  is 
harrowed  in.  and  such  is  the  looseness  and  light- 
ness of  the  soil,  there  seems  but  little  necessity 
for  the  plough  in  raising  the  first  crop  of  grain. 

Our  road  led  us  across  a  water  of  the  Ohio 
called  Captena;  also  several  streams  belonging  to 
a  river  called  Stillwater  ;  thus  named  from  its 
slow,  silent  progress  to  the  Muskingum. 

13th.  This  day  we  travelled  twenty-five  miles 
and  reached  Beathe's  Ordinary.  We  have  had 
a  very  disagreeable  day's  ride.  A  continued  fall 
of  rain,  hail,  and  snow,  and  the  road  very  miry 
and  fatiguing  to  our  horses.  The  land  through 
which  we  have  passed  not  quite  so  good  gene- 
rally as  that  noted  yesterday.  We,  however, 
saw  considerable  bodies  of  excellent  land,  parti- 
cularly of  bottoms.  Some  of  them  were  of  far 
greater  extent  than  any  we  have  heretofore  met 
with,  being  heavily  timbered  and  very  rich. 
Scarcely  a  settlement  has  yot  been  made  in  this 


tract ;  deer  are  very  plenty  here.'  It  is  to  be  re- 
marked, that  in  riding  the  last  fifty  miles,  we 
have  scarcely  seen  one  of  any  of  the  descriptlonsi 
of  the  feathered  tribes,  except  owls.  Birds  love 
to  resort  to  the  haunts  of  men. 

Squirrels  appear  to  be  very  numerous,  and' 
are  mostly  of  a  deep  black  color.  In  the  notes 
made  on  crossing  the  Alleghany  Mountains,  I 
omitted  to  observe  that  the  squirrels  we  saw^ 
there  were  mostly  red,  and  less  in  size  than  the 
grey  squirrels  of  Maryland.  They  are  the  most 
active  squirrel  I  ever  saw,  and  are  called  by  the 
mountaineers  the  Chipparee  Squirrel. 

We  tijis  day  crossed  several  uf  the  branches  of 
Will's  Creek.  This  creek  we  understand  derived 
its  name  from  Will,  a  famous  Indian,  who  former- 
ly had  a  town  upon  its  banks  culled  Willstown. 

14th.  Travelled  twenty-five  miles,  crossing  in! 
our  way  the  main  branch  of  Will's  Creek  and  a 
water  called  Salt  Creek  ;  at  night  reached  Zanes- 
ville,  and  lodged  at  M'Intire's  tavern.  This  is 
a  town  lately  laid  out  on  the  Muskingum  river, 
opposite  to  the  junction  of  Licking  creek.  Its 
situation  is  verji  level  and  handsome,  and  will 
doubtlei^s  command  the  trade  of  this  new  coun- 
try. As  we  approached  the  Muskingum,  our  road^ 
led  us  upon  a  hill  of  about  200  feet  elevation, 
upon  which  we  rode  for  a  distance  of  seven ^ 
miles  ;  both  upon  our  right  and  left  hand,  wert"; 
chains  of    hills    about   ten    miles    from    us,    in 


view,  beariog  the  same  westerly  direction,  with 
that  upon  which  we  travelled.  The  appearance 
of  these  hills  revived  the  recollection  of  the 
Blue  Ridge,  and  its  parallel  mountains.  Several 
mounds  or  burial  places  were  to-day  observed 
by  us. 

15th.  This  day  we  travelled  thirty  miles  and 
lodged  at  a  small  hut  called  Trimble's. 

We  ferried  the  beautiful  river  Muskingum  at 
Zanesville,  where  it  is  about  600  feet  wide,  rode 
through  a  tolerable  tract  of  land,  till  we  reached 
a  creek  called  Jonathan's  creek.  From  this 
creek  to  the  end  of  this  day's  journey,  a  distance 
of  twenty  miles,  we  rode  through  land  which  we 
think  preferable  to  any  tract  we  have  yet  passed, 
being  more  level,  the  timber  heavier  and  the  soil 
very  rich;  many  Germans  are  making  settlements 
here.  Several  mounds  fell  under  our  observa- 
tion to-day;  we  also  saw  many  deer;  seventeen 
of  these  were  together  in  one  wheat  field. 

16th.  Rode  thirty-two  miles,  and  at  night 
were  permitted  to  lodge  under  a  roof  called 
Gray's.  We  passed  through  New  Lancaster,  a 
town  lately  laid  out,  and  situated  on  the  great 
Hock-hocking  river,  as  it  is  called  upon  the 
maps.  Its  size  greatly  disappointed  me ;  an  ac- 
tive man  may  jump  from  one  of  its  banks  to  the 
other  at  New  Lancaster. 

This  town  as  well  as  the  neighboring  country, 
is  being  rapidly  settled  by  Germans.  Durino^ 


itea  our  aamiration.  inow  ana  tnen  a;{ 
'  natural  meadow  containing  from  fiftyl 
mdred  acres,  apparently  a  perfect  level  J  ' 

our  day's  ride,  the  extraordinary  beauty  of  the 
country, as  well  as  the  superior  excellency  of  the 
land,  excited  our  admiration.  Now  and  then  a 
prairie  or 
to  two  Lu 

having  neither  tree,  shrub,  stump,  or  stone,  and 
the  soil  the  deepest  black  I  ever  saw  in  any  com- 
position of  earths,  attracted  our  notice.  These 
were  surrounded  by  higher  ground,  covered  with 
lofty  timber,  extending  to  the  next  prairie,  and 
thus  on  till  we  reached  a  tract  called  the  Piqua 
Plains.  Here  our  admiration  was  afresh  excited 
by  a  view  of  the  most  beautiful  scenery  we  had 
yet  met  with.  This  tract  is  perfectly  ]eYe] ;  it  is 
situated  upon  the  Scioto  river,  is  seven  miles  io 
length,  and  generally  three  miles  in  width,  hav- 
ing neither  tree,  stone  or  shrub,  and  composed 
of  the  black  earth  above  described ;  it  is  in  part 
under  cultivation.  About  the  centre  of  the 
prairie  is  a  circular  mound  of  large  diameter, 
and  about  forty  feet  in  height,  cast  up  by  art. 
It  is  covered  with  lofty  timber.  The  people 
who  cultivate  these  plains  find  them  4o  produce 
from  eighty  to  one  hundred  bushels  of  Indian 
corn,  and  from  forty  to  fifty  bushels  of  wheat 
per  acre.  They  plant  corn  at  the  distance  of 
two  and  a  half  to  three  feet  apart,  having  six  to 
eight  stalks  in  a  hi 

In  the  course  of  this  day's  journey  we  have 
seen  deer  and  turkeys  in  abundance,  and  for 


several  days   past   have   eeea    vast   numbers  of 

17th.  Travelled  fifteen  miles  and  arrived  at 
the  town  of  Chilicothe,  where  we  were  well  en- 
tertained at  Tiffin's  tavern.  The  governor  of 
the  State  of  Ohio  resides  here,  who  having 
heard  of  our  arrival,  paid  us  a  visit  in  the  even- 
ing and  supped  with  us.  We  were  pleased  with 
his  friendly  affability.  In  the  course  of  this 
day's  short  ride,  our  road  led  through  a  continua- 
tion of  the  finest  lands. 

It  is  remarkable  that  there  are  uniformly 
three  gradations  of  elevation,  from  the  banks  of 
the  Scioto  river.  Th^e  first  is  a  bottom  of  about 
one  mile  in  extent,  very  level  and  covered  with 
black  walnut,  buck  eye,  blue  ash,  honey  locust, 
and  sugar  trees.  Then  upon  another  elevation 
of  about  fifteen  feet,  a  second  bottom,  which  ex- 
tends from  one  to  two  miles,  covered  with  the 
same  descriptions  of  timber,  though  heavier,  and 
the  trees  standing  nearer  together.  Then  an- 
other elevation  about  the  same  height,  which  ex- 
tends for  many  miles,  being  a  little  inclined  to 
hills  ;  the  timber  composed  of  a  great  variety. 
People  are  settling  fast  upon  this  tract,  and 
several  mills  are  already  erected  upon  a  creek 
belonging  to  the  Scioto,  which  we  crossed,  called 
the  Killakanik. 

On  our  way  we  turned  aside  from  our  road 
to  view  an  ancient  fortification.     This  fortifica- 



tion  is  on  the  Scioto  bottom  adjacent  to  the  river 
and  is  shaped  thus. 

f,-.t°f!?-  t'"''.^'^*'"°*'"  ^"o^o  Ri^er.  A  pictorial  rein-e=Pnt-i 
tion  of  th.s  Indian  antiquity  has  been  published  iu  the  S  fth  n^ 
lan  Contributions  to  Knowledge,  vol.  if  plate  xviiL  ''^^^^='^=- 

The  bank  of  earth  thrown  up  around  the  for- 
tifacatjon  IS  about  six  feet  high,  surrounded  by 
a  ditch  upon  the  outside,  now  four  feet  in  width 
and  as  many  in  depth.  The  bank  is  covered 
with  lofty  timber,  as  is  also  the  ground  within 
the  intrenchment.  There  are  several  Diound<. 
such  as  have  heretofore  been  described  in  the 
vicinity,  and  within  the  town  of  Chilicothe  there 
IS  another  fortification  of  which  the  diameter  is 
about  450  feet.     Near  this  is  the  largest  mound 



we  have  seen,  being  100  feet  in  diameter,  and 
thirty  feet  in  height,  and  is  a  globular  figure  of 
great  regularity.  Three  miles  below  the  town 
of  Chilicothe,  and  between  the  Scioto  and  Paint 
Creek,  and  near  their  junction,  is  a  fortification, 
of  the  foilowino;  figure  : 


Containing  SO  Acres.  ^^ 

The  banks  of  this  ancient  work  are  about  six 
feet  in  height.  The  eight  small  circles  opposite 
the  openings  or  gates  are  mounds  of  considerable 

I  had  omitted  to  mention,  that  on  the  east 
bank  of  the  Scioto,  nearly  opposite  Chilicothe, 
we  measured  to-day  a  sycamore  tree  which  was 
sixteen  feet  in  diameter.  The  tree  is  hollow, 
and  measures  thirteen  feet  across  the  hollow. 
Xew  settlers  have  frequently  encamped  in  this 
tree  with  their  families,  whilst  thej  were  making 
choice  of  land  to  settle  upon. 

18th.  Proceeded  upon  our  journey  fifteen 
miles  and  lodged  at  Platter's  tavern.  On  our 
way  we  passed  many  mounds.     Several  of  them 



were  of  the  shape  and  size  of  the  one  describe 
in  the  town  of  Cbilicothe.     Our   attention  W! 
also  arrested  by  the  appearance  of  a  bank  throve 
up  at  some  distance  from  our  road  ;  on  riding;  1 
it  we  found  it  to   be  a  very  extensive   fortifier 
tion.     It    is    situated    upon  a  level   plain    neil 
Paint  Creek,  one  of  the   waters  of   the  Sciotr. 
river.     As  this  is  a  work  of  great  labor  and  cur" 
osity,  I  shall  be  minute  in  my  description  an 
give  the  following  figure. 

Ancient  Fortification  on  PaiBt  Creek,  near  Cbilicothe,  contain- 
ing within  the  embankments  nearly  one  hundred  acres. 


The  bank  which  is  cast  up  for  the  fortification 
is  now  fully  four  feet  in  height,  and  thirty-three 
in  width,  at  the  base  covered  with  lofty  timber. 

The  figure  marked  (A)  is  a  very  regular  oval 
mound  500  feet  in  diameter,  from  one  extremity 
to  another  the  longest  way,  and  300  feet  in 
diameter  the  other  way;  perpendicular  height  is 
about  thirty  feet.  This  mound  is  paved  over 
with  stone,  and  has  upon  it  trees  of  large  size,  as 
well  as  the  remains  of  decaying  trees,  which 
after  acquiring  their  full  growth  have  fallen. 
The  two  circles  marked  (B)  are  very  perfect 
globular  figures.  They  are  one  hundred  feet  in 
diameter,  and  about  thirty  feet  perpendicular 

The  remaining  eight  small  circles  represent 
mounds  which  are  from  eighty  to  one  hundred  feet 
in  diameter,  and  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  feet 
perpendicular  height,  being  also  globular  figures, 
and  all  covered  with  lofty  timber.  I'he  semi- 
circle (C)  is  a  bank  of  earth  thrown  up  to  the 
height  of  about  three  feet,  its  diameter  about 
one  hundred  and  fifty  feet. 

Near  the  outer  banks  of  this  extraordinary 
fortification  are  many  large  holes  in  the  earth, 
at  least  one  hundred  feet  in  diameter,  and  of 
considerable  depth.  These  are  no  doubt  places 
out  of  which  the  earth  was  in  part  taken  for 
making  this  work  of  labor. 

The  land  through  which  we  have  passed  to- 
day, is  a  continuation  of  a  country,  very  level 

32  JOURNAL    OF   A   VISIT   TO 

and  beautiful,  being  situated  on   Paint  Creek 
the  soil,    the    same  in    appearance   as  that   dt 
scribed  yesterday,    nothing  seeming  to  indicat 
its  superior  richness,  unless  it  be  the  size  of  it 
timber.     The  heaviest  and  most  towering  tree 
we  have  seen,  we  met  with  to-day.    Our  progres 
was  impeded  by  our  curiosity  to   take  the  girtl 
of  many  of  the  trees;  we  measured   white   oaki 
which  were  from  seven  to  eight  feet  in  diameter 
walnuts,  six  to  seven  feet  four  inches;  elms,  sii 
to    six    feet   eight    inches ;    ash,  five    feet,  and 
honey  locusts  four  feet  in  diameter;  the  girthf 
taken  eight  feet  above  the  surface  of  the  earth. 
These  trees  carried  their  thickness  to  an  amazing 

We  also  measured  a  few  sycamore  trees,  and 
most  of  them  were  from  eight  to  ten  feet  in 
diameter ;  one  of  the  sycamores  we  measured 
which  was  eight  feet  in  diameter,  continued  its 
thickness  forty-five  feet  without  a  limb,  its  top 
very  branching  and  large.  While  we  Were  admir- 
ing it,  Philip  Dennis*  suggested  an  opinion 
that  this  tree,  could  it  be  split  into  cord-wood 
after  the  common  manner,  would  measure  forty 
cords.  At  first  we  questioned  the  statement, 
but  upon  making  a  calculation,  became  con- 
vinced that  his  estimate  was  within  bounds. 

These  were  not  trees  singled  out  as  the  only 
monuments;  we  turned  not  aside  to  search  for 
them,  but  measured  such  as  fell  under  our  own 
observation  in  passing  over  our  road.     It  is  more 


than  probable  that  there  are  trees  in  the  same 
tract  larger  than  any  we  saw.  Few  settlements 
are  yet  made  here. 

19th.  Eode  seventeen  miles,  and  reached  the 
residence  of  our  friend  William  Lupton,  upon 
Lee's  Creek,  one  of  the  head  waters  of  Paint 
Creek.  Our  road  led  us  eight  times  across  Paint 
Creek  ;  passing  a  great  part  of  the  way  through 
the  bottoms  of  Paint  Creek.  The  land  the  same 
in  appearance  as  remarked  yesterday.  In  the 
course  of  our  ride,  we  saw  many  hundreds  of 
poplars  which  were  the  more  observable,  as  we 
have  scarcely  noticed  a  poplar  since  we  crossed 
the  Ohio.  These  trees  are  generally  seven  .to 
eight  feet  six  inches  in  diameter,  many  of  them 
continuing  their  thickness  for  fifty  feet  in  height, 
and  very  handsome  and  sound.  On  the  bot- 
toms we  saw  deer  in  abundance;  they  were 
so  gentle  as  to  allow  us  to  pass  by  them 
quite  within  gun  shot.  They  appeared  to  be 
busy  in  cropping  the  young  grass.  AVe  have 
also  observed  several  mounds  and  fortifications 
near  the  falls  to  Paint  Creek,  and  others  nearly 
adjacent  of  which  the  banks  are  about  three  and 
a  half  feet  high. 

Upon  this  Creek  there  are  many  beaver 
I  dams,  and  beavers  are  still  caught  here  by  the 
i  Indians.  For  several  days  past  we  have  seen 
i  many  hunting  camps  but  no  Indians.  Several 
i  families  of  Friends  have  settled  in  this  remote 
I  quarter  of  the  Western  Teorritory.     They  have 

84  JOURNAL   OF   A   VISIT   TO 

removed  from  Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  an( 
expect  to  be  followed  by  others.  They  tell  u: 
that  an  induced  meetino^  is  held  in  one  of  thei 

There  is  much  to  induce  Friends  of  the  South 
ern  States,  to  remove  to  this  new  country  ;  for 
added  to  the  consideration  of  the  superior  qualit] 
of  the  land,  and  the  cheap  and  easy  terms  upor 
which  it  is  to  be  purchased,  there  is  an  invalu. 
able  regulation  in  the  Constitution  of  Ohio,  pro 
hibiting  the  introduction  of  slaves.  The  Con 
stitution  has  also  provided  that  no  person  with- 
in the  State  shall  voluntarily  relinquish  his  righ' 
to  freedom.  Its  framers  have  even  gone  further 
they  declare  that  they  have  made  these  regula- 
tions  to  be  binding  both  upon  them  and  upoc 
their  posterity. 

This  truly  valuable  country  is  forbidden  ground 
to  the  Virginia  slave-holders.  Many  of  them 
have  approached  as  near  to  its  borders  as  theji 
have  dared,  by  settling  along  the  east  shore  oi 
the  Ohio  river  ;  their  murmurs  induced  several 
persons  in  the  State  of  Ohio,  to  offer  themselves 
as  candidates  to  the  late  State  Legislature,  de- 
claring their  determination  to  use  their  influence 
in  obtaining  an  alteration  in  this  part  of  the 
Constitution.  We  are  told  that  on  account  oi 
this  avowal,  they  met  with  the  most  pointed  and 
zealous  opposition  ',  the  people  declariog  gene- 
lally,  that  one  of  the  inducements  which  led 
them  to  emigrate  to  the  State,  was  the  Constitu- 


tional  provision  by  which  slavery  wasinterdictedj 
and  that  any  alteration  therein  would  be  an  in- 
supportable grievance. 

20th,  This  day  rode  fifteen  miles,  and  reached 
Hugh  Evans's,  upon  Clear  Creek,  one  of  the  head 
waters  of  the  Rocky  Fork  of  Paint  Creek.  The 
country  through  which  we  have  passed  is  up- 
land and  lies  level.  The  timber  is  heavy  and 
much  interspersed  with  blue  ash,  hackberry, 
walnut  and  sugar  trees.  There  is  scarcely  a  set- 
tlement yet  made  here. 

21st.  Our  progress  has  been  impeded  for 
several  days  past,  two  of  our  horses  belonging 
to  our  company  having  faltered.  This  day  we 
concluded  to  rest  them  by  continuing  at  the 
house  of  Hugh  P]vans,  who  is  hearty  and  cheerful 
at  seventy-four  years  of  age,  his  wife  equally 
so,  and  seventy-two  years  of  age.  The  old  man 
appears  to  make  me  welcome  at  his  house,  say- 
ing he  knew  my  father,  having  early  in  life  been 
his  neighbor,  and  has  made  many  inquiries  after 
the  families  of  the  people  who  were  his  old  ac- 
quaintance. He  says  he  has  six  children,  all  of 
whom  have  married  to  his  satisfaction,  and  that 
they  lately  removed  with  him  from  Kentucky, 
and  are  settled  around  him,  each  of  them  upon 
five  hundred  acres  of  land  which  he  has  given 
them.  He  says  that  it  affords  him  great  conso- 
lation now  in  the  decline  of  life,  to  reflect  that 
his  acquisitions  are  the  fruits  of  his  honest  in- 

36  JOURNAL   OP   A   VISIT   TO 

22d.  This  day  rode  twenty-three  miles,  an 
lodged  at  Sewell's.  Cabin, — a  day  of  snow  an 
rain.  We  crossed  the  ridge  which  divides  th. 
waters  of  the  Scioto  from  those  of  the  LittlH 
Miami  river.  Passed  several  of  the  hea 
branches  of  the  latter,  as  also  a  considerabl 
creek  called  the  East  Fork  of  the  Little  Miami 
On  oue  of  the  bottoms  of  the  creek  we  noticed 
fortiScation.  The  bank  cast  up  around  was  abou 
\  tour  feet  high.  We  also  observed  within  a  fe^ 
rods  several  mounds.  It  is  truly  a  beautifu 
country  through  which  we  have  passed  to-day 
the  land  is  level,  covered  with  lofty  timber,  an< 
the  soil  very  rich,  scarcely  a  settlement  ye 

23d.  Continued  our  journey,  and  after  ridinj 
fourteen  miles,  reached  the  house  of  Samue 
Linton,  at  Wainsville,  upon  the  Little  Miam 
river,  where  we  were  kindly  received.  At  thi: 
place  we  rested  ourselves  and  horses,  acquirec 
information  respecting  our  future  route,  ant 
equipped  ourselves  for  the  increasing  difficultie: 
of  the  wilderness. 

The  settlement  made  here  is  composed  chiefly 
of  Friends  ;  about  thirty  families  reside  in  thi: 
neighborhood.  A  Monthly  Meeting  is  helc 
here  called  Miami  Monthly  Meeting,  to  whicl 
about  thirty  families  more  belong  who  are  scat 
tered  over  an  extensive  tract  of  country. 

Oar  attention  was  attracted  to-day  by  the  ap 
pearance  of  the  stone,  not  only  in  the  beds  ol 

x,_     ■ 


the  rivers  and  creeks,  but  also  upon  the  hills 
and  in  the  valleys.  They  are  limestone,  and  are 
composed  altogether  of  marine  shells.  The  stone 
when  broken  discovers  the  size  and  shape  of  the 
shells  very  perfectly. 

These  shells  are  of  the  same  description  with 
those  I  have  formerly  obtained  from  the  banks 
of  the  Chesapeake  Bay,  in  the  lower  part  of  the 
State  of  Maryland.  It  may  be  remarked,  that 
no  shell-fish  of  this  description  are  at  present  to 
be  found  in  any  of  the  waters  of  our  Continent. 

The  country  west  of  the  Ohio  river  through 
which  we  have  passed  is  a  limestone  country, 
the  very  pebbles  and  even  sand  in  many  places 
are  limestone. 

Heretofore  I  have  omitted  to  mention  that  in 
the  neighborhood  of  Chilicothe,  we  amused  our- 
selves with  the  earths  and  stones,  which  were 
dug  out  of  the  ground  in  sinking  wells.  There 
are  several  layers  or  strata  of  limestone,  gravel, 
and  sand,  within  a  few  feet  of  the  surface  of  the 
earth.  Some  of  the  stones  contain  the  above 
description  of  marine  shells,  and  in  breaking 
some  of  the  large  gravel  we  found  appearances 
of  the  same  shells.  The  stones  as  well  as  the 
gravel  have  evident  marks  of  their  having  been 
washed  with  water,  their  shape  inclining  greatly 
to  rotundity. 

24th.  Again  proceeded  upon  our  journey,  and 
after  riding  eight  miles  reached  Dayton,  where 
we  lodged.  This  town  is  newly  laid  out^  situ- 


ated  upon  the  Great  Miami  river,  nearly  of 
posite  to  the  junction  of  Still  Water  and  Ma 
river,  with  the  Miami,  which  is  here  about  on 
hundrel  and  sixty  feet  in  width.  We  hav 
passed  to  day  the  Ridge  which  divides  the  water 
of  the  Little  and  Great  Miami,  and  crossei 
several  of  the  streams  belonging  to  the  Grea 
Miami.  The  tract  of  country  between  thi 
two,  through  which  we  have  passed  to-day. 
is  of  the  most  beautiful  and  desirable  de, 
scription.  The  land  lies  in  waves  of  great  regu; 
larity,  is  crossed  with  heavy  towering  timber: 
and  the  soil  inexhaustibly  rich.  At  Daytoi 
\rere  two  block  houses,  which  were  erected  bj 
the  white  men,  as  places  of  retreat  and  defence 
agc'iinst  an  attack  by  the  Indians. 

25th.  Rode  twenty-one  miles,  and  reached  i 
small  village  called  Staunton,  situated  upon  th< 
Great  Miami  river.  The  country  continues  tc 
exhibit  a  beautiful  appearance,  though  the  tim 
ber  is  not  generally  so  heavy  as  noted  yesterday 
We  passed  several  extensive  and  rich  prairies, 
and  forded  Mad  river  a  little  above  its  mouth. 
The  river  derives  its  name  from  its  swift  current. 
We  also  crossed  several  streams  belonsfing  to  the 
Great  Miami. 

26th.  This  day  after  riding  fifteen  miles,  we 
reached  Flinn's  ordinary,  where  we  were  disap- 
pointed in  finding  no  feed  for  our  horses.  We 
also  received  the  information  that  there  was  no 
probability  of  our  obtaining  provision  for  them 


f  sliort  of  Fort  Wayne;  we  therefore  despatched 
'^''  a  part  of  our  company  to  a  house  we  had  pa>«'se'i 
"'  about  four  miles,  in  quest  of  corn.  They  obtained 
four  bushels,  and  hired  a  man  and  horse  to  travel 
with  us  and  bring  the  corn  along.  For  many 
days  past  our  horses  have  sufiFered  for  want  of 
hay,  and  being  fed  altogether  upon  corn  they 
have  lost  their  appetites. 

The  face  of  the  country  in  the  course  of  this 
day's  short  journey  is  a  continuation  of  beautiful 
land;  being  level,  and  finely  timbered.  We 
passed  through  a  handsome  prairie  containing 
several  hundred  acres  called  the  Lower  Piqaa 
Plain,  crossed  Honey  Creek  and  Lost  Creek, 
two  considerable  streams  of  the  Great  Miami. 

Thus  far  in  our  route  we  have  been  favored 
with  respect  to  the  waters,  no  rain  having  fallen 
lately  to  raise  the  creeks  and  rivers  to  a  height 
sufficient  to  detain  us.  In  fording  some  of  the 
streams  we  have  thought  that  even  six  inches 
greater  depth  would  take  our  horses  ofi"  their  feet. 
There  is  considerable  danger  in  fording  many  of 
the  streams  we  have  passed,  from  the  unevenness 
of  the  stony  bottoms  of  the  rivers.  The  beds  of 
the  rivers  are  mostly  limestone,  and  being  worn 
smooth  by  the  washing  of  the  water,  horses  are  apt 
to  fall.  This  was  to-day  the  case  with  my  horse  in 
fording  the  Miami,  from  which  accident  I  got 
very  wet. 

During  our  detention  here  this  afternoon,  we 
observed  a  flock  of  birds  alighting  from  the  trees^ 


different  in  appearance  from  any  we  had  seen 
Our  landlord  informed  us  they  were  parrots,  and 
that  they  were  common  upon  the  Great  Miami : 
and  to  gratify  our  curiosity  he  shot  one.  It  was 
about  the  size  of  a  dove,  and  its  plumage  resem- 
bled the  green  parrot  of  South  America,  the 
head  red,  and  the  wings  tipped  with  the  same 
color,  the  tail  long  and  the  bill  and  tongue  of 
the  same  description  as  the  chattering  parrot. 
As  they  alighted  from  the  trees,  they  made  a 
hoarse  noise  resembling  the  chattering  of  the 
common  parrot. 

There  is  also  a  woodcock  here  resembling  the 
red  headed  woodcock  of  Maryland,  except  that 
its  head  is  black  and  its  bill  ivory. 

At    this    place    General    Wayne    erected  ai 
fortification    when  on  his  march  against  the  In- 
dians, a  part  of  which   is  now   standing.     Ourr 
landlord  occupies  one  of  the  houses  which  was.* 
at  that  time  built  and  enclosed  within  the  stock- 
ade.    From  tbe  late  period  in  the  day  at  which  i 
our    supply  of  corn  arrived  for  the  horses,  wei 
have  concluded  to  remain  at  our  quarters;  the 
landlord  tells  us  we  shall  be  welcome  to  sleep 
upon  his  floor,  and  has  promised  to  make  us  a 
good  fire  to  sleep  by. 

This  is  a  kind  of  lodgment  to  which  we  have 
become  well  accustomed,  having  heretofore  in 
our  journey  often  had  to  wrap  ourselves  in  our 
blankets  and  to  lie  upon  floors,  always  observing 
the  necessary  precaution  of  laying  our  feet  to  the 
fire;  wc  have  in  no  instance  taken  cold. 


27th.  This  day  rode  fourteen  miles,  and  on 
our  way  passed  a  larger  prairie  than  the  one  we 
saw  yesterday,  which  is  called  the  Upper  Piqua 
Plains.  We  have  also  passed  a  body  of  land 
heavily  timbered,  but  its  very  level  situation 
renders  it  not  desirable.  Through  this  tract  we 
have  found  a  verj  deep  and  miry  road,  and 
have  regretted  the  necessity  of  a  slow  movement. 
Our  hired  man  has  to  lead  his  horse,  the  bag  of 
corn  being  too  heavy  for  the  horse  to  bear  his 
weight  also.  We  reached  a  place  called  Lora- 
mier's  store,  where  we  found  a  shelter  and 
lodged,  having  through  the  latter  part  of  the 
day  rode  through  rain.  On  our  way  we  twice 
crossed  a  considerable  water  of  the  Miami  called 
Loramier's  Creek. 

At  this  place  there  is  a  very  large  fortification 
made  by  General  Wayne  called  Fort  Loramier. 
And  here  it  is  that  the  line  of  division  between 
the  white  people  and  the  Indians  passes  agree- 
ably to  the  treaty  of  peace*  between  the  Indians 
and  General  Wayne.  I  may  here  remark  that 
for  many  days  in  passing  along,  we  have  ob- 
served hunting  camps  erected  by  the  Indians, 
but  no  Indians  in  them. 

It  is  probable  they  are  at  present  at  or  near 
their  towns.  We  have  observed  from  day  to 
day  many  curious,  and  to  us  unintelligible  In- 
dian hieroglyphics  cut  upon  the  trees.  We  have 
also  been  entertained  in  examining  these  figures, 
sometimes   cut,  at  other  times   painted  on    the 

*  Treaty  of  Grenville,  for  which  see  Appendix. 


wood  after  cutting  away  the  bark,  the  figures  oi 
elks,  the  horns  of  the  elk,  the  figures  of  buffaloes,, 
bears,  wolves,  deer,  raccoons,  and  various  other 
wild  beasts,  and  birds  of  different  species  ;  turtles 
and  reptile  creatures;  also  the  representation  ol 
men,  women  and  children,  boys  with  bows  and 
arrows  shooting  game,  and  men  with  their 
guns  aiming  at  game,  or  in  the  act  of  pursuing, 
it,  &c.  &c. 

As  a  testimony  in  favor  of  the  virtue  andl 
modesty  of  these  men  of  the  woods,  I  note,  thatj 
we  have  not  yet  observed  amongst  this  variety 
of  figures,  one  unchaste  representation. 

28th.  Rode  twenty-two  miles  through  a  flat 
country,  heavily  timbered  ;  at  night  we  encamped 
in  the  woods,  made  a  large  fire,  fared  sumptu- 
ously upon  wil  1  pigeons,  wrapped  ourselves  in 
our  blankets  and  slept  soundly.  Our  pigeons 
were  shot  by  one  of  our  company  who  carries  a 
gun.  There  are  at  this  time  vast  numbers  of 
this  fowl  scattered  over  the  woods.  They  breed 
here  undisturbedly.  Squirrels  are  also  very 
numerous.  We  now  and  then  see  a  few  deer. 
They  are  not  plenty  here.  Wolves,  opossums, 
raccoons,  and  some  other  descriptions  of  wild 
game  are  abundant.  We  have  not  yet  seen  a 
bear,  though  they  are  very  plenty  throughout 
the  region  we  have  passed  over.  This  is  owing 
to  a  remarkable  fact  in  the  history  of  this  crea- 
ture. They  betake  themselves  to  dens  in  the 
holes  of  trees,  at  an  early  period  of  the  winter, 



where  they  remain  till  the  1st  of  the  4th  month. 
During  this  interval  they  never  leave  their  holes, 
and  as  fchey  lay  up  no  store  for  the  winter  sup- 
ply, it  is  certain  they  live  without  eating.  "The 
Indians  say  they  live  by  sucking  their  paws. 
The  means  by  which  their  lives  are  supported) 
in  their  recluse  situation,  I  shall  not  uudertakei 
to  determiae.  I  shall  however  observe  that  when' 
taken  from  their  dens  they  are  always  very  fat 
We  have  met  with  much  of  their  meat,  and  can 
assert  that  we  have  seen  the  thickness  of  four 
inches  of  fat  between  the  skin  and  the  lean  which 
covers  the  ribs.  During  the  winter  the  Indians 
find  the  bears  by  searching  for  their  dens  in  the 
trees,  which  they  know  by  the  marks  made  by 
the  claws  of  the  bear  in  climbing. 

We  have  now  reached  the  waters  of  the  lakes, 
having  to  day  forded  one  of  the  forks  ot  the  St. 
Mary's  river.  On  our  way  we  passed  for  a  few- 
miles  along  a  road  one  huudred  feet  wide,  cut 
by  General  Wayne's  army  for  transporting  pro- 
visions from  the  great  Miami  to  the  St.  Mary's 
river.  The  i^oad  is  now  grown  up  with  briars 
and  shrubs. 

Shortly  after  wc  had  made  our  fire,  and  with 

!  the  approach  of  night   we  heard  at  a  short  dis- 
tance from  us,  a  whooping  in  the  woods.     We  ■ 

I  had  reason  to  believe  from  the  shrill  and  uncom-  - 
mon  whoop,  that  it  was  the  voice  of  an  Indian, 
and   having  underst)od    that  it  was   a   custom 
aiuong  them  when  about  to  approach  a  camp,  to 

44  JOURNAL   OF   A   VISIT   TO 

give  Dotice  by  a  whoop,  we  failed  not  to  retnr 
the  ceremony  also  by  a  whoop.  In  a  few  qk 
ments  two  Indian  men  upon  a  horse,  followed  b 
two  women  and  a  girl  upon  another  horse,  rod 
np  to  onr  camp.  Their  countenances  were  srai 
ing  and  indicative  of  friendship.  As  we  reache 
them  our  hands,  they  shook  them  saying,  "  Sag£ 
8aga,  niches,"  which  we  have  since  learned  wa 
the  salutation,  "  IIow  do  you  do,  brothers."  The 
could  not  speak  English,  b»t  putting  their  hand 
to  their  breasts  expressed,  "  Delawares,  Dela 
^ares/'  from  which  we  gathered  they  wer 
Delaware  Indians.  They  had  their  bunting  ap 
paratus  with  them,  and  pointing  several  time 
to  the  south,  we  concluded  they  wished  to  mak^ 
us  understand  that  their  camp  was  i»  that  direc 
tion,  and  that  they  were  on  their  way  to  it 
After  looking  upon  us  for  some  minutes  the} 
left  us. 

29th.  Very  early  this  morning  we  agaia  pro»i 
ceeded,  and  this  day  rode  thirty  miles,  a  laborious^ 
fatiguing  journey  to  ourselves  and  horses.  Om 
path  leading  through  a  flat  country  we  find  the 
travelling  miry  and  deep.  Our  horses  are  to  b( 
pitied,  the  stock  of  corn  we  procured  for  their 
is  exhausted,  and  the  only  food  they  can 
now  cret  is  the  grass  in  the  woods.  For  several 
nights  past  we  have  turned  them  loose  to  graze 
These  poor  creatures  feed  around  our  camps  and 
appear  afraid  to  leave  us. 

This  day  we  crossed  the  St.  Mary's  where  its 


on  >-7idth  was  about  one  liundred  and  fifty  feet,  it  is 
mo  said  to  be  a  very  deep   river.     An   old   Indian 
hand  his  squaw  reside  here,  and  he  undertook  to 
ferry  us  across  in  a  canoe.     Our   horses  swam 
the  river,  and  got  over  well.     The  old  Indian, 
who?e   name  is   Stephen,  very  unintentionally 
swam  also.     This  accident  was  owing  to  the  mis- 
fa  conduct  of  same  of  the  packers,  who,  on  their 
c]  way  to  Fort  Wayne  with  provisions,  gave  Stephen 
too  much  whisky.     Philip  Dennis  was  in  the 
eanoe  with  him  when  he  accidentally  fell  over- 
board ;  we  were  greatly  alarmed  for  his  safety, 
piknowing  that  he  was  intoxicated,  but  after  dis- 
ci [appearing  for  a  few  seconds,  he  rose  to  the  sur- 
Lclface  of  the  water,  and  soon  convinced  us  that  he 
eould  swim.     Philip  caught  him  by  his  blanket, 
and  got  him  again  into  the  boat.     The  old  man 
jjllaughed  very  heartily  at  the  accident,  saying  to 
us  in  broken   English,    "  No  fear,  me  ferry  you 
in  de   canoe   yet."     Our  blacksmith  having  in- 
ijformed  Stephen  of  his  expectation  of  settling  in 
HE  the  Indian  country  for  the   benefit  of  the   red 
people,  and  the   old  man  finding  also   that  our 
concpany  were    all  prosecuting  their    travels  for 
[Dibenevolent  purposes,   exercised  his  gratitude  by 
telling  us  ^'  You  pay  one  quarter  dollar  de  man  ; 
nobody  keep  canoe  here  but  Stephen;  he  make 
the  white  people  pay  dollar,  I  make  dem  packers 
pay  me  de  rest,"     In  Stephen's  hut  we  observed 
several  Indians  who  were  asleep.     He  says  they 
are  Indians  who  have  come  a  great  distance  and 


are  tired.  During  the  greater  part  of  this  d: 
we  have  rode  through  a  heavy  rain.  The  ra 
continuing  with  the  approach  of  night,  we  ma( 
a  large  fire,  and  erected  a  shelter  in  imitation 
the  Indian  hunting  camps,  covering  it  with  o- 
blankets.  Under  this  we  slept,  and  were  b 
little  incommoded,  notwithstanding  the  ra 
continued  during  the  greater  part  of  the  nisrl 

I  must  not  omit  to  mention  that  we  to-d? 
passed  through  a  very  level  plain  containii 
many  thousand  acres.  This  plain  is  almost  wit 
out  trees.  The  soil  nearly  hid  by  the  weeds  ai 
grass  of  last  year's  growth  ;  the  luxuriance 
which  plainly  demonstrates  its  extraordinary  fe 
tility.  In  this  plain  we  observed  a  small  por 
or  lake  in  which  were  wild  geese  and  ducks 
abundance.  We  are  informed  that  this  is  oi 
of  the  phices  where  wild  fowl  raise  their  youn 

30th.  Pursued  our  path  and  travelled  twent 
three  miles  through  a  very  fettile,  heavily  tii 
bered  and  beautiful  country,  being  a  little  n;o 
inclined  to  hills.  The  ride  to-day  has  been 
pleasing  one,  in  part  doubtless  from  the  refle 
tion  that  the  day  would  probably  close  a  Ion 
tedious  and  ardut^us  journey.  We  at  last  reache 
Fort  Wayne.  As  we  approached  the  Foi 
having  reached  it  within  about  thirty  rods,  \ 
were  saluted  by  a  sentinel  with  the  word  ''  Halt 
We  obeyed  the  con)mand.  A  sergeant  was  d 
spatched  from  the  commanding  officer,  who  e 
quired  of  us  on   his  behalf,  "  Where  are  yc 


going,"  and  *'  What  is  your  business."  We  de- 
sired him  to  inform  the  commandant  that  we 
were  strangers,  and  that  we  had  an  introductory- 
letter  directed  to  him  which  would  explain  our 

The  officer  shortly  returned  to  us  with  an  in- 
vitation to  advance ;  we  accordingly  proceeded, 
and  were  met  very  politely  by  the  commanding 
officer,  Capt.  Whipple,  to  whom  we  handed  the 
following  letter  from  the  Secretary  of  War. 

"  War  Department,  February  20,  1804. 

^'Gentlemen, — Ihis  will  be  handed  you  by- 
Messrs.  George  EUicott,  Joel  Wright,  and  Gerard 
T.  Hopkins,  who  are  a  deputation  from  the  So- 
ciety of  Friends  in  Maryland,  for  visiting  the  In- 
dians in  the  western  country  for  the  laudable 
purpose  of  affording  them  assistance  in  the  intro- 
duction of  the  arts  of  civilization. 

They  are  men  of  high  respectability,  are  ac- 
tuated by  the  best  motives,  and  are  entitled  to 
all  the  civilities  in  your  power  to  bestow.  You 
will  please  to  afford  them  all  necessary  aid,  and' 
treat  them  with  such  marks  of  respectful  atten- 
tion as  are  due  to  citizens  whose  disinterested 
services  deserve  the  ftlaudits  of  every  good  man. 

'•'■  I  am,  very  respectfully,  your  humble  servant, 
"  Henry  Dearborn.* 

*•  To  the  commanding  officer  at  Fort  Wavne. 

"  Mr.  John  Johnson,  Indian  Factor. 

"Mr.  William  Wells,  Indian  Agent." 

*  General  Dearborn  was  well  acquainted  with  the 
membei-s  of  the   mi-sion   who  resided   at  Ellicott's 


After  deliverint^   this  letter  we  proceededl 
the  house  of  a  Canadian  trader,  who  we  had  p  ^ 
yiously  been   informed  would   furnish   us   w 

In  the  evening  the  Commandant  followed 
to  our  quarters,  discovering  marks  of  great 
spect  and  attention,  and  appears  to  be  a  gent 
man.  He  has  urgently  pressed  us  to  dine  w: 
him  to-morroW;  and  we  have  accepted  the  in 

81st.  This  morning  the  commanding  offic 
accompanied  by  John  Johnson  and  Willie 
Wells,  the  two  other  persons  named  in  the  letl 
to  the  Secretary  of  War,  waited  upon  us.     Th 

Mills,  and  letters  frequently  passed  "between  the 
He  was  deeply  Interested  in  the  improvement  of  t 
Indian  tribes,  and  having  heard  of  the  deputati 
about  to  be  sent  from  the  Friends  of  Maryland 
Fort  Wayne,  he  drew  up  this  letter,  and  also  the  o 
which  will  be  seen  in  the  following  pages  to  the  coi 
manding  officer,  and  the  Indian  agent  at  Detroit,  ai 
wishing  to  impart  all  the  information  he  possesse 
to  relieve  a  journey  to  a  place  then  considered  so  d: 
tant  a  settlement,  he  took  the  trouble  to  deliv 
them  in  person  at  Ellicott's  Mills,  and  suggest  f 
return  of  the  mission  by  the  way  of  Lake  Erie  ai 
Niagara.  The  General  was  a  noble  looking  man,  ai 
although  he  had  been  actively  engaged  in  our  R 
volutiouayy  war,  still  appeared  to  be  in  the  vigor 
life ;  he  made  the  trip  from  Washington  to  EUicott 
Mills  on  horse-back  attended  by  his  son  and  a  se 
vant,  a  distance  of  forty  miles,  and  returned  tl 
next  day  in  the  &ame  way.  T'. 


expressed  to  us  they  were  glad  to  see  us,  and 
invited  us  with  marks  of  earnestness,  each  one, 
to  make  his  house  our  home.  We  thanked  them 
for  their  kindness,  and  accepted  the  invitation 
of  the  Factor,  John  Johnson,  whom  we  accom- 
panied to  his  house. 

In  an  interview  with  these  three  persons  we 
communicated  to  them  more  fully  the  object  of 
our  visitj  and  consulted  with  them  respectino; 
the  best  mode  to  pursue,  in  order  to  effect  our 
purpose.  It  was  deemed  advisable  that  an  ex- 
press be  sent  to  the  Little  Turtle  and  to  the  Five 
Medals.  The  former  residing  at  his  town  called 
Turtle's  Town,  about  eighteen  miles  from  this 
place,  situated  upon  Eel  river,  a  water  of  the 
^^abash,  and  the  latter  on  the  river  Sr.  Joseph 
of  Lake  Blichigan,  about  forty  miles  hence,  in- 
forming them  of  our  arrival  at  Foit  Wayne,  and 
that  we  wished  to  see  each  of  them  there  at  an 
early  period.  This  charge  William  Wells  readily 
took  upon  himself,  and  we  have  no  doubt  he  will 
comply  with  his  engagement. 

We  fulfilled  our  promise  in  dining  to-day  with 
Capt.  Whipple,  the  commanding  officer.  We 
were  all  accompanied  to  his  house  by  John 
Johnson,  who  dined  with  us.  The  officer  behaved 
with  a  freedom  and  gentility  becoming  a  well 
bred  man.  After  dinner  he  showed  us  more 
fully  the  fort.  This  fortification  which  was 
built  by  General  Wayne,  is  large  and  substantial, 
and  is  situated   opposite  to  the  junction  of  the 


St.  Mary's  and  St.  Joseph's  rivers,  and  precise! 
the  place  from  which  those  waters  take  the  narc 
of  the  Miami  of  the  Lake,"^  bearing  that  nao] 
to  Lake  Erie.  The  fort  commands  a  beautify 
view  of  these  rivers,  as  also  of  an  extent  (i 
about  four  miles  square  of  cleared  land.  Muc 
of  this  land  has  been  cleared  by  the  army  of  th 
United  States,  and  much  of  it  was  formerly  don 
by  the  Miami  Indians;  they  having  had  a  larg. 
town  here.  It  is  said  that  in  the  year  1785,  th 
Indian  town  then  at  this  place  contained  upward 
of  one  thousand  warriors.  The  garrison  kcp 
here  at  present  contains  about  forty  ofl5cers  an 
soldiers  It  being  a  time  of  profound  peace  witl 
the  Indians,  government  have  withdrawn  th 
large  force  formerly  kept  at  this  station. 

The  spot  where  Fort  Wayne  is  situated  is  ren 
dered  famous  in  Indian  history.  It  was  her< 
that  the  Indians  gave  the  army  of  Genera]  Har 
mar  a  second  defeat  by  which  several  hundrec 
of  his  men  fell.  Their  bones  lie  scattered  upot 
the  surface  of  the  earth,  and  we  are  told  thai 
the  route  by  which  the  army  made  an  escape 
can  be  readily  traced  for  the  distance  of  five  oi 
six  miles  by  the  bones  of  those  slain  by  the  In- 

The  grave  of  the  Toad,  nephew  to  the  Little 
Turtle,  a  distinguished  young  chief,  who  with 
the  Little   Turtle  and  other  chiefs  visited  the 

*  Now  called  the  Maumee  river. 


P'ricnds  of  Baltimore  two  years  ago,  is  l.ere  ;  le 
died  very  suddenly  on  his  return  from  that  jour- 
ney. His  death  was  greatly  lamented  by  the 
Indians,  and  for  a  long  time  after  his  burial  his 
grave  was  visited  by  them,  and  many  singular 
ceremonies  performed  over  it.  They  buried  with 
him  his  rifle,  his  hunting  apparatus,  his  best 
clothing,  all  his  ornaments,  trinkets,  &c.  &c.  ke., 
their  value  being  not  less  than  three  hundred 

4th  month  1st.  This  day  is  the  first  day  of  the 
week,  and  the  inhabitants  of  Fort  Wayne  appear 
to  pay  no  respect  to  it.  The  soldiers  are  on 
duty,  and  the  Canadians  who  are  settled  here 
are  busied  with  their  several  occupations.  After 
breakfast  we  paid  a  visit  to  William  W^ells,  and 
after  spending  several  hours  with  him  returned 
to  our  quarters.  In  the  afternoon  we  observed 
three  Indians  advancing  toward  our  lodgings, 
and  soon  discovered  that  one  of  them  was  the 
Five  Medals,  the  other  two  were  his  sons.  He 
had  not  heard  of  our  arrival  till  he  reached  Fort 
Wayne,  and  the  only  information  he  had  ob- 
tained was  that  some  Quakers  had  come.  Busi- 
ness had  brought  him  to  the  fort.  They  were 
invited  into  our  room,  when  the  chief  instantly 
recognized  us  both.  He  appeared  glad  to  see 
US;  and  shook  hands  with  both  of  us  very  hearti- 
ly. A  person  be  ing  present  who  understood  the 
Pottowattamy  language,  he  said  to  him  pointing 
to  me,  ''  This  is  the  man  who  wrote  our  talks  in 

52  JOURNAL   or  A   VISIT   TO 

The  Five  iVIedals  very  deliberately  and  cai 
didly  replied  to  our  inquiry  after  his  health  i 
follows  :  '^  That,  in  the  course  of  last  fall  he  wei 
to  Detroit,  that  whilst  there  the  white  peop: 
made  him  drink  whiskey.  That  after  he  ha 
accomplished  his  business  there,  he  set  out  fc 
his  home,  and  -ot  upon  his  horse  whilst  th 
whiskey  was  in  his  head.  That  he  had  not  rod 
tar  before  he  fell  from  his  horse,  and  was  ver 
much  hurt  by  the  fall  and  that  ever  since  tha 
time  he  had  not  been  well." 

After  some  further  mutual  inquiries,  relativ 
to  the  welfare  of  red  and  white  acquaintance,  w 
informed  him  through  an  interpreter  that  w. 
liad  come  to  see  our  red  brethren,  that  we  hac 
messages  for  both  the  Little  Turtle  and  himself 
and  were  glad  that  it  had  so  happened  that  w. 
had  come.  That  we  hoped  the  Little  Turth 
would  come  to-morrow,  and  that  we  wished  tc 
see  them  together,  having  something  to  say  tc 
them.  He  appeared  pleased  with  this  informa- 
tion and  expressed  that  he  had  made  a  camp 
not  tar  off,  where  he  would  wait  for  the  arrival 
of  the  Little  Turtle.  After  some  -enerul  con- 
versation he  withdrew,  bidding  us  fa^rcwell. 

w  n  "^".^r^?/  -^^'°"  ^''^^^^'^  ^0  ^ioe  to-day  with 
^\illiam  Wells,  who  is  interpreter  for  the  In- 
d.ans,  we  went  to  his  house  accordingly,  havincr 
tlie^ company  of  our  very  worthy  and^kind  land!^ 

About  mid-day  the  Little  Turtle  arrived.    He 


approached  us  with  a  countenance  placid  be- 
yond description ;  took  us  by  the  hand  with  cor- 
diality, and  expressed  himself  in  terras  of  great 
gladness  at  meeting  with  us.  He  inquired  very 
particularly  after  his  friends  and  acquaintance  of 
Baltimore^  after  our  own  welfare,  the  path  we 
had  come,  and  the  difficulties  we  had  encoun- 
tered on  our  journey  through  the  wilderness. 
Having  answered  his  questions,  he  replied  in 
turn  to  our  inquiries  as  follows  :  That  since  he 
saw  us  it  had  pleased  the  Great  Spirit  to  take 
away  two  of  his  brothers  and  a  nephew.  That 
his  nephew  was  the  Toad,  a  young  chief  who 
was  with  him  in  Baltimore.  That  he  died  on 
his  return  from  that  visit,  and  within  a  few  miles 
of  home,  of  which  circumstance  he  had  desired 
William  Wells  to  inform  us.  That  with  respect 
to  himself,  he  was  hut  lialf  well,  having  been 
very  sick  last  fall  and  expected  to  die.  That 
his.  white  brothers  at  Fort  Wayne,  hearing  of 
his  illness,  sent  a  doctor  to  him  who  gave  him 
physic  and  made  him  better.  That  he  had  now 
seen  fifty-three  winters,  and  two  of  his  brothers 
being  dead,  made  him  think  of  death,  and  that 
his  time  would  soon  come. 

He  also  told  us  that  he  had  left  a  brother  at 
his  town  who  would  have  accompanied  him, 
being  very  desirous  to  come  with  him,  but  could 
not  find  his^  horse  in  time.  After  this,  other 
conversation  took  place  of  a  general  nature.  The 
interpreter  informs  us  that  his  complaint  is  the 


gout,  and  that  in  the  time  of  his  illness  he  (th 
interpreter)  had  told  him  that  his  complaint  be 
longed  to  great  folks  and  gentlemen.  "  Well ' 
said  the  Turtle,  "I  always  thought  I  was'; 

About  2  o'clock  we  dined.  At  the  head  of  the 
table  sat  the  interpreter's  wife,  who  is  a  modesti 
well-looking  Indian  woman,  and  the  daughter 
of  a  distinguished  chief  She  had  prepared  foi 
us  a  large  well  roasted  wild  turkey,  and  also  a 
wild  turkey  boiled,  and  for  these  she  had  pro- 
vided  a  large  supply  of  cranberry  sauce.  The 
Little  Turtle  sat  at  table  with  us,  and  with 
much  sociability  we  all  partook  of  an  excellenti 

In  the  afternoon  the  Five  Medals,  attended  by 
his  sons,  visited  us  at  William  Wells'  house, 
and  the  opportunity  being  a  suitable  one,  we 
proposed  to  them  that  a  formal  conference  should 
then  take  place  between  us.  This  proposition 
meeting  their  assent,  we  opened  the  conference 
by  desiring  the  interpreter  to  inform  them  that 
we  Had  received   their  talk  sent  to  us  last  fall, 

*  By  the  suffrage  of  all  who  became  acquainted  with 
icni  .^  Turtle  during  his  visits  to  Baltimore  in 
IbOl  and  also  in  lb07,  he  was  acknowledged  to  be 
a  gent  eman  m  character,  appearance,  and  manners. 
His  estimate  of  himself  therefore  was  not  too  hish. 
tor  his  speech  before  the  Indian  Committee  in  Balti- 
more in  IKII,  and  other  information  concerning  him, 
see  appendix.  °  rp     ' 


informing  us  that  the  implements  of  hiisbandrj, 
which  we  had  sent  to  them  last  year,  had  come 
to  them  safely,  and  that  we  had  carefully  ob- 
served all  that  was  coutained  in  that  talk.  That 
we  were  deputed  by  their  brothers  and  friends  of 
Baltimore  to  come  to  see  them.  That  we  had 
accordingly  come,  and  had  with  us  a  letter  di- 
rected to  them,  which  we  thought  ought  in  the 
first  place  to  be  read,  and  after  that  we  might 
have  something  to  say  to  them.  A  short  pause 
having  taken  place,  they  expressed  a  desire  that 
the  letter  should  be  read,  which  was  accordingly 
done,  and  interpreted  to  them  as  follows  : 

"From  the  Committee  appointed  for  Indian 
Affairs  by  the  Friends  of  Maryland  to  the  Little 
Turtle  and  the  Five  Medals,  Chiefs  of  the  Potto- 
wattamy  and  Miami  nations  of  Indians  : 

'■^  Brothers  and  Friends. — We  have  received 
your  talk,  communicated  by  our  friend  William 
Wells,  after  the  reception  of  the  implements  of 
husbandry  sent  last  spring  for  your  use.  In 
that  speech,  as  well  as  when  you  were  in  Balti- 
more, you  have  told  us  that  you  thought  it  best 
for  some  of  us  to  go  out  to  see  you,  that  we 
might  be  better  capable  of  judging  what  could 
be  done  further  for  the  benefit  of  our  red  breth- 

"  Brothers  and  Friends, — In  compliance  with 
your  request  we  have  named  our  beloved  friends 
George  EUicott,  Gerard  T.  Hopkins,  Joel  WMght, 
and  Elisha  Tyson,  to  go  and  visit  you  and  to  take 


you  by  the  hand  on  our  behalf.  And  we  desir 
that  you  will  receive  them,  or  any  of  them  the 
may  be  enabled  to  perform  the  journey  as  you 
brothers,  in  whom  we  have  confidence, 'and  tha 
you  will  receive  any  communications  from  ther 
as  being  from  us,  who  are  desirous  of  assistin 
you  in  what  may  add  to  your  comfort,  and  tha 
of  your  women  and  children. 
Your  friends  and  brothers, 

William  Stabler,         Evan  Thomas, 
Isaac  Tyson,  Elisha  Tyi^on, 

Benjamin  Ellicott,       Jonathan  Wright, 
John  Ellicott,  p^lias  Ellicott, 

Edward  Stabler,  Jonathan  Ellicott, 

Philip  E.  Thomas,      Thomas  More, 
Andrew  Ellicott,  Jr.,  Samuel  Snowden. 
Baltimore,  2d  mo.  4:th,  1804." 

At  the  contents  of  this  letter  they  expressec 
their  satisfaction,  and  after  a  pause  of  severa 
minutes  we  addressed  them  through  an  interpre 
ter  as  follows  : 

^'  Brothers ^  and  Friends. — You  observe  thai 
the  lett.^r  which  has  just  been  read,  makes  men- 
tion of  fuur  of  us  appointed  to  visit  you.  One 
of  these  was  an  infirm  man  who  thought  he 
could  not  endure  the  fatigue  of  so  long  a  jour- 
ney, and  therefore  did  not  come.  The  other 
did  not  omit  to  come  for  the  want  of  love  to  his 
red  brethren  ;  family  circumstances  rendered  it 
mcoavenient  for  him  to  leave  home.     You  see, 


[brothers,  that  it  has  pleased  the  Great  Spirit 
Ithat  two  of  us  mentioned  in  the  letter,  should 
[reach  the  country  of  our  red  brethren.  Brothers, 
we  thought  it  right  in  the  first  place  to  send  for 
lyou,  and  to  show  jou  the  letter  which  has  just 
been  read.  We  are  fjlad  that  you  are  now  come, 
(and  that  we  have  this  opportunity  of  taking  you 
[by  the  hand. 

''  Brothers,  we  believe  that  we  have  some  things 
to  say  to  you  which  are  of  great  importance  to 
our  red  brothers,  to  their  old  men,  to  their  young 
men,  to  their  women,  and  to  their  children. 

"  Brothers,  we  may  now  mention  that  we  have 
not  come  merely  to  talk,  but  we  hope  we  have 
come  prepared  to  do  a  little  for  the  welfare  of 
our  red  brethren. 

"  Brothers,  in  looking  over  our  business,  we 
have  thought  that  we  should  be  glad  to  have  an 
opportunity  of  seeing  our  red  brethren  together, 
and  are  willing  to  propose  for  your  consideration, 
that  you  should  now  fix  upon  some  place,  and 
agree  upon  some  time  to  meet  us  again,  and  that 
our  brothers  invite  their  old  men,  their  young 
men,  their  women  and  their  children  to  meet  us, 
when  we  shall  have  something  to  say  which  it 
may  not  be  necessary  now  to  say. 

^^  Brothers  and  Friends^ — Should  you  think 
that  the  proposal  which  we  have  now  made  is 
proper,  and  conclude  to  meet  us  in  the  manner 
we  have  pointed  out,  we  expect  we  shall  have 
}but  little  more  to  say  at  present."     Here  a  pause 


for  some  minutes  took  place,  wbon  the  Lit! 
Turtle  inquired,  "If  the  Friends  had  move 
say."     He  was  answered  in  the  negative. 

After  a  further  pause  and  some  conversati( 
between  the  two  chiefs,  they  rose  from  thej 
seats,  and  perceiving  that  they  were  advancit 
toward  u>j,  we  also  arose  from  our  seats.  On  mee 
in^x  them,  they  took  us  by  the  hand,  and  wit 
countenances  indicative  of  great  gravity,  shoo 
hands  with  us  and  returned  to  their  seats. 

The  Five  Medals  then  commenced  a  speec 
as  follows  :  — 

"Brothers  and  Friends:  My  friend,  the  Li 
tie  Turtle,  and  myself,  together  with  my  tw 
sons,  who  are  present,  rejoice  to  have  this  oppoi 
tunity  of  seeing  you,  and  of  taking  you  by  th 

"  My  Brothers  :  We  are  glad  to  be  informed 
that  you  received  our  talk  sent  to  you  last  fall 
and  to  find  that  you  are  now  come  to  the  countr 
of  your  red  brethren. 

"  My  Brothers  and  Friends  :  We  rejoice  tha 
the  Great  Spirit  has  conducted  you  safely  to  oui| 
country,  and  figure  to  ourselves  that  in  you  w( 
sec  the  rest  of  our  brothers  and  friends  of  Balti 
more,  and  that  in  taking  you  by  the  hand,  w€ 
take  them  by  the  hand. 

"  Brothers  :  We  know  that  you  have  come  a 
long  distance  to  see  the  situation  of  your  red 
brethren.  We  have  no  doubt  that  you  have 
things  to  say  which  are  of  great  importance  to 


IS,  and  which  do  not  belong  to  a  few  only  Lut 
fo  many. 

'Brothers:  Your  brethren    the    Indians    do 

business  not  as  the  white  people  do.     We  con- 

'i^ene  our  chiefs,  and  things  of  importance  are 

onsidered   by  them.     But,  brothers,  you  have 

3ome  to  see  the  situation  of  your  red  brethren. 

[t  is  our  wish  that  you  should  see  it.     You  shall 

QOt  be   disappointed.     The  proposal  you   have 

tnade  to  us  we  think  right,  and  have  concluded 

ilthat  this  place  (Fort  Wayne,)  is  the  best  place 

fco  be  fixed  upon  for  the  purpose  you  wish.     We 

are  pleased  to  find  that  you  have  a  desire   that 

(bur  young  men  should  be  present  to  hear  what 

ryou  have  to  say,  and  as  it  is  your  wish  to  see  our 

i^^omen  and   children,  we   desire   that  you   may 

have  an  opportunity  of  seeing  them. 

■'  Brothers  and  Friends  :  Our  young  men  are 
out  huDtinp:,  and  our  women  and  children  are 
DOW  at  work  at  their  sugar  camps.  The  time  is 
not  far  off  when  they  will  all  retura  to  our 
'towns,  when  it  is  usual  to  meet  together.  We 
^hope,  brothers,  that  you  will  not  be  in  a  hurry, 
but  will  allow  us  time  to  collect  our  people  to- 

Here  a  pause  took  place,  when  we  inquired  if 
they  had  any  thing  further  to  add.  And  being 
answered  in  the  negative,  we  addressed  them 
again  in  substance  as  follows  : 

"  Brothers  and  Friends  ;  When  we  left  our 


homes,  wc  knew  it  was  early  in  the  season,  an 
expected  that  we  sliould  get  to  the  country  t 
our  red  brethren  at  a  time  when  their  youn 
men,  their  women  and  children  would  be  busj 
But  brothers,  a  part  of  the  service*  which  we  dt 
sign  t)  render  to  you,  required  that  we  shoul 
come  early,  and  makes  it  also  necessary  that  w 
should  now  be  in  a  hurry. 

"  Brothers  :   We  will  also  add  that  when  w 
were  chosen   by  our   friends  at   home    to  pay  ;  y 
visit  to  our  red  brethren,  our   women   and  chil 
dren  consented  that   we  should   leave  them,  bu 
charoed  us  that   we   should  not  stay  away  fron 
them  longer  than   circumstances  really  required 
A  li>iig  time  has  already  past  since  we  left  them, 
we  therefore  hope,  brothers,  that  in  three  or  foui[i 
days  it  will  be   in  your  power  to  get  togethei[ 
some  of  your  people.     Those  that   are  far  from 
home  we  do  not  wish  that  you  should  send  for." 

The  Little  Turtle  then  observed  that  the  rea- 
sons we  had  given  were  good.  The  Five  Medals 
next  remarked  that  at  the  time  proposed,  they* 
could  easily  convene  a  considerable  number  of 
their  indolent  people,  who  were  too  lazy  to  hunt' 
or  make  sugar,  but  such  they  did  not  wish  us  to 
see.     Their  industrious  young  men  and  women 

•**■  The  Friends  were  desirous  that  their  agricul- 
turist, Piiilip  Dennis,  should  arrive  amongst  the 
Indians  in  time  to  plant  corn.  T. 


iwere  too  far  from  home  to  be  convened  in   so 
short  a  time. 

Here  a  short  conversation  took  place  between 
the  chiefs,  and  afterwards  they  proposed  seven 
•laj-'s  hence  as  the  time;  desiring  that  to-morrow 
I  might  not  be  counted,  as  it  would  take  them  a 
day  to  return  home.     To  this  we  consented. 

The  Five  Medals  then  expressed  as  follows  : 

"  Brothers,  it  would  have  been  very  desirable 
to  us  if  you  could  have  met  us  at  the  time  of  our 
counsel.  We  have  very  often  told  our  people 
of  the  Quakers.  They  listen  to  us,  but  are  at  a 
loss  to  know  what  sort  of  people  the  Quakers 
are.  If  you  could  stay,  brothers,  they  would 
Ihave  an  opportunity  of  seeing  the  Quakers,  and 
of  hearing  words  from  your  own  mouths.'' 

After  this  the  Little  Turtle  added  : 

"  Brothers :  We  hope  the  words  that  you 
may  say  to  us  at  the  time  we  have  appointed  to 
meet  will  be  upon  paper.  From  that  paper  we 
can  at  some  future  time  have  your  words  de- 
livered to  our  people.  This,  brothers,  will  in  some 
measure  answer  the  end." 

During     a    pause    which    occupied    several 

minutes  we  asked   them  if  we  understood  each 

other.     The  Turtle  replied,  "■  Yes,  perfectly  ;  we 

have  nothing  further  to  do  now  than  to  look  for- 

j  ward  to  the  day  appointed.'' 

After  this  we  took  each  other  by  the   hand 
and  very  cordially  bade  farewell.     We  then  re- 
turned to  our  lodgings. 


Id  the  evening  we  again  had  the  company  ol 
the  chiefs,  they  having  been  invited  by  oui 
landlord  to  take  supper  with  us.  | 

8d.    This    day   rainy,    and    spent   chiefly   alji 
William  Wells'. 

Be.-ides  the  garrison  stationed  here,  there  is  i 
large  store  of  goods  established  by  the  United 
States,  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  the  Indians. 
The  store  is  kept  by  our  landlord.  Several 
Canadian  traders  also  reside  here,  who  exchange 
goods  with  the  Indians  ;  some  of  them  have  re- 
sided here  for  more  than  thirty  years.  The  In- 
dians are  daily  arriving  with  their  peltry,  some 
of  them  exchange  them  for  goods,  others  re- 
quire money.  The  women  bring  sugar,  which 
is  generally  neatly  packed  in  a  square  box  made 
of  bark,  cnntaiuing  about  fifty  pounds.  It  is 
made  from  the  suffar  tree.  This  art  has  lony; 
been  known  to  the  Indians.  They  make  and 
use  large  quantities  of  sugar.  AVe  have  seen 
very  white  and  clear  looking  sugar  of  their  manu- 

4th.  Rode  about  two  miles  up  the  St.  Mary's^ 
river  and  viewed  the  remains  of  old  Indian 
houses,  also  the  fields  on  which  they  cultivated 
corn,  where  the  corn  hills  are  still  discernible. 
We  also  observed  large  numbers  of  Indian  gravt  s. 
These  are  now  discernible  only  by  the  sunken 
cavities  in  the  surface  of  the  earth.  In  the 
course  of  our  route  we  have  seen  many  Indian 
graves  of  more   ncent  date.     They   bury  iheir 


dead  about  three  feet  below  the  surface  of  the 
earth ;  and  over  the  grave  they  either  place  a 
heap  of  stones  or  a  pen  of  lo^s.  If  the  de- 
ceased has  been  a  person  of  distinctioD,  they 
plant  posts  at  the  head  and  foot  which  they  orna- 
ment very  curiously. 

In  a  review  of  the  many  circumstantial  evi- 
dences which  have  fallen  under  our  observation 
of  the  former  population  of  this  western  world, 
I  am  ready  to  adopt  the  expressions  of  a  pious 
author : 

"  Where  is  the  dust  that  hath  not  been  alive ! 
The  spade,  the  plough,  disturb  our  ancestors  ; 
From  human  mould  we  reap  our  daily  bread." 
Young's  Night  Thoughts. 

4th  month  5th.  Spent  the  day  with  Captain 
Wells.  We  walked  with  him  up  the  St.  Joseph's 
river,  and  were  shown  the  ground  upon  which 
the  Indians  under  the  command  of  the  Little 
Turtle  defeated  a  part  of  the  United  States  army 
under  Greneral  Harmar,  killing  800  out  of  500 
men.  We  also  followed  for  a  considerable  dis- 
tance the  route  which  the  soldiers  took  in  their 
retreat,  and  saw  many  of  their  bones.  Amongst 
these  were  skulls  which  had  marks  of  the 
tomahawk  and  scalping  knife.  Many  of  them 
had  fallen  on  the  east  bank  of  the  river,  and 
also  within  the  river.  The  Indians  being  sta- 
tioned behind  trees  on  the  west  side  shot  them 
in  their  attempt  to  get  across. 

We  were  shown  the  tree  behind  which   the 


Little  Turtle  took  his  station,  as  also  a  tree  neg 
it  behind  which  his  nephew  fell.  This  was 
second  defeat,  the  United  States  troops  havin 
been  routed  the  day  before  on  Eel  river. 

6th.  Spent  the  day  in  the  neighborhood  c 
Fort  Wayne,  in  the  course  of  which  we  visite 
Captain  Whipple.  This  afternoon  several  In 
dians  from  different  tribes  arrived,  bringini 
with  them  skins  and  furs.  These  arc  mostl; 
brought  by  the  women  upon  their  backs,  th^ 
men  thinking  it  sufficient  to  carry  their  gun, 
and  hunting  equipments. 

We  saw  this  evening  a  white  woman,  who 
when  a  small  girl,  had  been  taken  captive,  anc 
has  ever  since  lived  amongst  the  Pottowatam^ 
tribe  of  Indians.  She  tells  us  (through  an  in^ 
terpreter)  that  she  has  no  knowledge  of  th€ 
part  of  the  country  from  which  she  was  taken, 
nor  of  her  family.  That  she  remembers  her  name 
was  Dolly,  which  is  the  only  distinct  recollec- 
tion she  retains  of  herself  previous  to  her  cap- 
tivity. This  woman  is  dressed  in  Indian  habit, 
is  painted  after  the  Indian  order,  and  has  so 
effectually  adopted  Indian  manners,  that  a  nice 
observer  would  not  discover  from  external  ob- 
servation her  origin,  except  from  the  color  of 
her  eyes,  which  are  grey. 

7th.  Visited  William  Wells,  and  rode  with 
him  up  the  St.  Mary's  about  five  miles.  On 
our  way  we  passed  several  sugar  camps,  at  which 
were  Indian  women  and  children  who  were  em- 


ployed  in  making  sugar.  Their  huts  were  large, 
and  covered  with  the  bark  of  the  Buck  Eye 
wood.  Their  troughs  for  catching  the  sugar 
water  as  it  is  called,  are  made  of  the  bark  of  tl  e 
tred  elm,  they  are  made  thin,  and  the  ends  tied 
'together.  We  were  shown  the  places  where 
stood  the  houses  of  several  distinguished  char- 
acters amongst  the  Indians.  Captain  Wells  also 
took  us  to  the  ground,  where  the  Little  Turtle 
reviewed  his  men,  and  gave  them  their  orders 
before  going  against  the  army  of  General  St. 
Clair.  It  is  an  extensive  plain  near  the  river. 
I  Wells  was  then  one  of  the  number,  and  says  the 
iLittle  Turtle  had  one  thousand  four  hundred 
men  ;  St.  Clair's  army  consisted  of  a  much  larger 
number,  and  were  about  fifty  miles  distant  at 
the  time.  The  Little  Turtle  divided  his  men 
into  bands  or  messes,  to  each  mess  twenty  men. 
It  was  the  business  of  four  of  this  number  alter- 
nately to  hunt  for  provisions.  At  12  o'clock 
eych  day  it  was  the  duty  of  the  hunters  to  re- 
turn to  the  army  with  what  they  had  killed.  By 
this  regulation,  his  warriors  were  well  supplied 
with  provisions,  during  the  seven  day's  in  which 
they  were  advancing  from  this  place  to  the  field 
of  battle.  It  is  well  known  that  at  day  break 
the  Indians  commenced  an  unexpected  attack 
upon  St,  Clair's  forces,  killed  nine  hundred  of 
his  men,  and  put  his  whole  army  to  flight. 
Wells  says,  that  only  about  thirty  Indians  were 
killed  in  the  battle^  and  that  about  twenty  died 


afterwards  of  their  wounds.      He  also  relate* 
the  following  anecdote: 

A  considerable  altercation  arose  amongst  tb 
Indians  on  the  _  review  ground,  relative  to  i 
Commander-in-Chief.  Some  were  in  favor  o 
Buckangehelas,  a  principal  chief  amongst  thi 
Delawares,  whilst  others  were  in  favor  of  th( 
Little  Turtle.  At  length  Buckangehelas  himsel 
decided  the  controversy  by  yielding  to  the  Litth 
Turtle,  saying  that  he  was  the  youngest  and  nios 
active  man,  and  that  he  preferred  him  to  him 
self.  This  reconciled  the  parties,  and  the  Littk 
Turtle  took  the  command. 

We  also  rode  to  view  a  prairie  which  extend; 
from  the  St.  Mary's  river  to  the  Little  river,  a 
branch  of  the  "Wabash.  The  distance  from  one 
to  the  other  is  not  more  than  four  miles,  and 
the  highest  ground  is  not  more  than  five  feet 
above  the  water  in  either  river.  The  Indians 
say  that  in  high  freshets  they  have  passed  from 
one  water  to  the  other  in  their  canoes,  A  canal 
might  easily  be  cut  here,  and  at  a  small  expense, 
by  which  the  waters  of  the  lakes  and  the  waters 
of  the  Ohio,  (and  of  course  the  Mississippi) 
would  be  connected.  An  abundance  of  furs 
and  skins  taken  on  the  waters  of  the  Ohio  and 
the  Wabash,  are  brought  up  the  latter  river  in 
boats  by  the  Canadians  and  the  Indians,  and 
thence  taken  across  a  portage  of  eight  miles  to 
the    Miami    of  tLe    Lakes,*   whence    they  are 

*  The  Maumee  river. 


again  conveyed  by  water  to  Detroit ;  goods  suit- 
able for  the  Indian  trade  are  also  transported 
back  again  by  the  same  route. 

After  spending  some  time  in  viewing  the  re- 
mains of  several  old  Indian  towns,  graves,  hiero- 
glyphics, &c.  &c.  &c.,  we  returned  to  William 
Wells'  house,  where  we  dined,  and  in  the  even- 
ing returned  to  our  lodgings. 

8th.  Paid  a  visit  to  the  carpenter  and  black- 
smith who  accompanied  us  as  before  mentioned. 
They  are  both  at  work.  The  blacksmith  is  re- 
pairing Indian  guns,  and  the  carpenter  is  at 
work  upon  a  council  house  which  the  govern- 
ment has  ordered  to  be  built  for  the  Indians  at 
their  request.  The  house  is  to  be  built  of  hewn 
logs,  fifty  feet  in  length,  and  twenty-five  in  width. 
We  also  amused  ourselves  in  attending  to  the 
manner  of  packing  furs  and  skins.  Our  friend 
Jonathan  has  several  Canadians  now  employed 
in  that  business.  They  are  packed  by  a  ma- 
chine constructed  for  the  purpose,  by  which  the 
work  is  performed  expeditiously.  The  packs 
are  made  in  squares  of  about  two  and  a  half  feet, 
and  contain  from  thirty-five  to  forty  deer  skins, 
or  about  two  hundred  raccoon  skins. 

9th.  On  the  evening  of  this  day,  we  received 
a  message  from  the  Little  Turtle,  informing  us 
that  the  Indians  had  arrived,  and  that  they 
would  be  ready  t^  meet  us  at  10  o'clock  the  next 

4th  mo.  10th.  At  10  o'clock  this  mornincr  we 


proceeded  to  "William  Wells',  who,  as  we  before 
observed,  is  interpreter  for  the  Indians.  We 
were  accompanied  by  our  friend  John  Johnson, 
Captain  Whipple,  Lieutenants  Campbell  and 
Simms,  and  several  other  reputable  persons,  and 
were  met  by  the  following  chiefs  : 

0-bas-se-a,  (or  the  Fawn,)  a  village  chief  of 
great  distinction  in  the  Miami  nation. 

Os-so-mit,  a  village  chief  of  the  Pottowattamy 
nation,  and  brother  to  the  Five  Medals. 

Me-she-ke-na-que,  or  the  Little  Turtle,  a  war 
chief  of  the  Miami  nation. 

They  were  attended  by  a  considerable  num- 
ber of  their  principal  young  men,  and  by  several 

The  Five  Medals  was  not  present.  He  had 
informed  us  on  taking  leave,  that  circumstances 
required  him  to  return  to  his  town,  and  that  the 
distance  would  be  too  great  for  him  to  return  in 
time  to  meet  us,  his  infirmities  occasioning  him 
to  travel  slowly,  but  that  he  would  send  his 
brother,  who  would  report  to  him  faithfully  all 
the  proceedings  of  the  council. 

After  we  had  taken  each  other  by  the  hand, 
the  chiefs  took  their  seats  by  the  side  of  each 
other.  Their  principal  people  next  seated  them- 
selves according  to  the  rank  or  distinction  which 
they  held.  After  them,  their  young  men  in 
circular  order,  seat  after  seat, — and  lastly,  the 
women, — who  occupied  seats  separate  from  the 
men,  being  placed  near  the  centre  of  the  room. 


We  took  our  seats  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
house  and  in  front  of  the  Indians. 

Being  all  thus  seated — I  speak  literally,  when 
I  say  my  heart  palpitated — I  felt  the  importance 
and  dignity  of  our  mission ;  I  wished  our  heads 
were  wiser,  and  feared  for  the  result  of  so  in- 
teresting an  opportunity. 

After  a  few  minutes  had  passed,  the  Little 
Turtle  observed,  that  when  we  met  before,  they 
had  informed  us  of  the  difficulty  there  was  in 
convening  the  Indians  at  so  early  a  period  in 
the  season,  and  that  those  of  their  people  then 
present  with  him  were  all  who  were  likely  to 
attend  to  listen  to  what  we  had  to  say. 

We  then  proposed  that  the  letter  from  our 
friends  and  brothers  at  home,  read  to  the  Five 
Medals  and  the  Little  Turtle  at  the  time  of  our 
first  meeting,  should  be  again  read  for  the  in- 
formation of  our  Indian  brethren  now  attend- 

This  proposal  was  deemed  proper^  and  the 
letter  was  accordingly  read. 

After  a  short  pause,  we  addressed  them  as 
follows : 

'^  Brothers  and  Friends  :  We  know  that  the 
most  of  our  Red  Brethren  are,  at  present,  at 
their  hunting  and  sugar  camps,  and  did  not  ex- 
pect to  see  a  large  number  at  so  short  a  notice. 
We  have^  therefore,  atrreeably  to  your  request, 
put  upon  paper  the  things  we  have  to  say,  and 
hope  you  will  not  fail   to  have   them  communi- 

70  JOURNAL   OP   A   VISIT   TO 

cated,  when,  at  some  future  time,  you  may  b 
more  generally  assembled/^ 

One  of  us,  then  standing  up,  read  to  them  th'i  | 
following  address ;  The  interpreter,  also  standinj 
between  us  and  the  Indians,  interpreted  our  com 
munication  :  "  The  Address  of  George  Ellicot 
and  Gerard  T.  Hopkins,  delivered  to  the  Littl 
Turtle  and  the  Five  Medals,  Chiefs  of  th^ 
Miami  and  Pottowattamy  nations  of  Indians,  an( 

"  Brothers  and  Friends :  When  we  were  to 
gether,  eight  days  ago,  with  the  Little  Turtlt 
and  the  Five  Medals,  the  letter  was  read  t( 
them,  which  has  just  been  read.  That  letter 
you  observe,  says  that  we  were  appointed  bj 
the  people  called  Quakers,  of  Baltimore,  to  visi 
you,  and  to  take  you  by  the  hand  on  their  be 
half,  desiring  that  you  would  receive  any  coms 
munications  from  us,  as  coming  immediately 
from  them. 

"  Brothers :  After  that  letter  was  read,  oui 
hearts  were  filled  with  so  much  love  for  our  Rec 
Brethren,  that,  on  looking  over  and  considering 
the  business  upon  which  we  had  come,  we  fell 
a  desire  to  see  as  many  together  as  could  be 
convened — and  this  day  was  that  agreed  upoD 
for  us  to  meet  you. 

''  Brothers  :  We  believed  that  the  things  we 
had  to  say  were  of  great  importance  to  our  Red 
Brethren,  and  therefore  it  was  that  we  request 
ed  to  see  you  together,  that  you  all  might  have 
an  opportunity  of  hearing  what  we  have  to  say 


"  Brothers  :  Our  hearts  are  filled  with  thank- 
fulness to  the  Great  Spirit,  that  He  has 
brought  us  safely  to  the  country  of  our  Red 
Brethren,  and  protected  us  through  the  journey. 
We  also  rejoice  that  He  has  given  us  thisopporr 
tunity  of  seeing  you,  and  of  taking  you  by  the 

''  Brothers  :  It  is  now  a  little  more  than  two 
years  since  your  Brothers  of  Baltimore  had  an 
opportunity  of  becoming  acquainted  with  the 
Five  Medals,  the  Little  Turtle,  Tuthinipee,  and 
some  other  chiefs.  They  were  glad  of  that  op- 
portunity of  having  a  talk  with  them,  and  of 
enquiring  after  the  situation  of  their  Red 

''  Brothers  :  We  had  for  some  time  entertain- 
ed apprehensions,  that  the  many  changes  which 
were  taking  place  in  circumstances,  must  greatly 
change  the  situation  of  our  Red  Brethren,  and 
that  the  time  was  fast  approaching,  in  which  it 
would  be  necessary  for  them  to  alter  their  mode 
of  living. 

"Brothers:  After  our  talk  with  the  chiefs 
whom  we  have  just  mentioned,  we  were  fully  con- 
vinced that  the  time  was  come, in  which  our  Red 
Brethren  ought  to  begin  to  cultivate  their  lands; 
that  they  ought  to  raise  corn  and  other  grain, 
also  horses,  cows,  sheep,  hogs,  and  other  animals. 
We  then  proposed  to  afford  them  some  assist- 
ance.   They  appeared  to  be  glad  of  the  proposal, 

72  JOURNAL   OF    A   VISIT   TO 

and  informed  that  many  of  their  people  wer 
disponed  to  turn  their  attention  to  the  cultiva 
tion  of  the  earth.  They  also  expressed  a  desir 
to  be  assisted  by  their  l.rothers  of  Baltimore. 

"Brothers:  Having  been  encouraged  by  th^ 
opportunity  which  we  then  had,  we  sent  to  th 
care  of  the  Agent  for  Indian  Affairs  some  ploughs 
harness  for  horses,  axes,  hoes,  and  other  imple 
ments  of  husbandry,  which  were  made  for  th( 
use  of  our  Red  Brethren,  and  desired  that  the;; 
might  be  distributed  amongst  them  as  tokens  o 
our  friendship. 

"■  Brothers :  We  received  last  fall,  througl 
the  hands  of  the  Agent  for  Indian  Affairs,  ; 
talk  from  the  Little  Turtle,  the  Five  Medals 
and  others,  informing  us  that  they  had  receive( 
the  implements  of  husbandry,  and  requestei 
that  their  Brothers  of  Baltimore  would  sen( 
some  of  their  people  into  the  country  of  thei 
Bed  Brethren  for  the  purpose  of  seeing  thei 
situation,  and  showing  them  how  to  make  use  o 
the  tools,  saying  they  did  not  know  how  t{ 

''Brothers:  It  is  for  these  purposes  that  W( 
have  now  come ;  and  we  again  repeat,  that  w 
rejoice  we  have  the  opportunity  of  seeing  you 
and  of  taking  you  by  tlie  hand. 

"  Brothers  :  In  coming  into  the  country  of  ou 
Red  Brethren,  we  have  come  with  our  eyes  open 
And  although  we  are  affected  with  sorrow,  ii 
believing  that  many  of  the  Red  Brethren  suffe 



much  for  the  want  of  food  and  for  the  want  of 
clothing,  yet  our  hearts  have  been  made  glad,  in 
seeing  that  it  has  pleased  the  Great  Spirit  to 
give  you  a  rich  and  valuable  country.  Because 
we  know  that  it  is  out  of  the  earth  that  food 
and  clothing  couie.  We  are  sure,  brothers,  that 
with  but  little  labor  and  attention,  you  may  raise 
much  more  corn  and  other  grain  than  will  be 
necessary  for  yourselves,  your  women  and  chil- 
dren, and  may  also,  with  great  ease,  raise  many 
more  horses,  cows,  sheep,  hogs  and  other  valuable 
animals,  than  will  be  necessary  for  your  own  use. 
We  are  also  confident,  that  if  you  will  pursue 
our  method  in  the  cultivation  of  your  land,  you 
will  live  in  much  greater  ease  and  plenty,  and 
with  much  less  fatigue  and  toil,  than  attend 
hunting,  for  a  subsistence. 

"Brothers:  We  are  fully  convinced,  that  if 
you  will  adopt  our  mode  of  cultivating  the  earth, 
and  of  raising  useful  animals,  you  will  find  it  to 
be  a  mode  of  living,  not  only  far  more  plentiful 
and  much  less  fatiguing,  but  also  much  more 
certain,  and  which  will  expose  your  bodies  less 
to  the  inclemencies  of  the  weather  than  is  now 
attendant  upon  hunting.  It  will  lead  you, 
brothers,  to  have  fixed  homes.  You  will  build 
comfortable  dwelling-houses  for  yourselves,  your 
women  and  children,  where  you  may  be  shelter- 
ed from  the  rain,  from  the  frost,  and  from  the 
snow,  and  where  you  may  enjoy  in  plenty  the 
rewards  of  your  labors. 

7*  dfOtJRJJAli   01'  A  YISIT   TO 

"  Brothers :  In  laying  these  things  before 
you,  we  have  no  other  motive  than  a  desire  of 
heart  for  the  improvement,  the  benefit  and  the 
welfare  of  our  Red  Brethren-^and  therefore  it 
is  that  we  speak  with  freedom,  and  we  hope^, 
that  what  we  have  to  say,  will  go  in  at  one  ear^ 
and  not  come  out  at  the  other,  but  that  it  will  be 
remembered  by  our  Red  Brethren.  For  we 
know,  brothers,  that  we  shall  not  be  ashamed  of 
what  we  say,  when,  in  time  to  come,  you  com- 
pare the  things  we  are  saying  to  you  with  youif 
experience  in  practising  them, 

"Brothers:  We  will  here  mention,  that  the 
time  was,  when  the  forefathers  of  your  brothersj 
the  white  people,  lived  beyond  the  great  water, 
in  the  same  manner  that  our  Red  Brethren  now 
live.  The  winters  can  yet  be  counted  when 
they  went  almost  naked,  when  they  procured  their 
living  by  fishing,  and  by  the  bow  and  arrow  in 
hunting-— and  when  they  lived  in  houses  no  bet- 
ter than  yours.  They  were  encouraged  by  some 
who  came  from  the  sun-rising,  and  lived  amongst 
them,  to  change  their  mode  of  living.  They 
did  change— they  cultivated  the  earth,  and  we 
are  sure  the  change  was  a  happy  oncy 

*'  Brothers  and  Friends  :  We  are  not  ashamed 
to  acknowledge  that  the  time  was  when  our  fore- 
fathers rejoiced  at  finding  a  wild  plumb  tree,  or 
at  killing  a  little  game,  and  that  they  wandered 
up  and  down,  living  on  the  uncertain  supplies 
of  fishing  and  hunting.    But,  brothers;  for  your 


encouragement,  we  now  mention  tliat,  by  turn- 
ing their  attention  to  the  cultivation  of  the 
earth,  instead  of  the  plumb  tree,  they  soon  had 
orchards  of  many  kinds  of  good  fruit& — instead 
of  wild  game,  they  soon  had  large  numbers  of 
oattle,  horses,  sheep,  hogs,  and  other  valuable 
animals,— and  in  many  placets,  instead  of  their 
forests,  they  had  large  fields  of  corn  and  other 
grain,  as  also  many  other  valuable  productions 
of  the  earth. 

"  Brothers  :  We  hope  your  eyes  will  be  open 
to  see  clearly,  the  things  which  are  best  for  you, 
and  that  you  will  desire  to  pursue  them.  We 
believe,  brothers,  that  it  is  in  the  heart  of  your 
father,  the  President  of  the  United  States,  to 
assist  his  red  children  in  the  cultivation  of  the 
earth,  and  to  render  them  services  which  will  be 
greatly  for  their  benefit  and  welfare.  We  hope 
that  your  exertions  to  change  your  present  mode 
of  living  will  be  so  plain  to  him,  that  he  will 
see  them.  This  will  encourage  him  to  continue 
to  aid  you,  in  your  endeavors, 

"  Brothers,  we  have  spoken  plainly ;  we  de- 
sire to  speak  plainly.  We  will  now  tell  you 
that  we  have  not  come  merely  to  talk  to  you. 
We  have  come  prepared  to  render  you  a  little 
assistance.  Our  beloved  brother,  Philip  Dennis, 
who  is  now  present,  has  come  along  with  u.s. 
His  desire  is  to  cultivate  for  you  a  field  of  corn  ; 
also,  to  show  you  how  to  raise  some  of  the  other 
pr.odttctloDs  of  the  .earth..     He  knows  how  to  US'* 


the  plough,  the  hoe,  the  axe,  and  other  imple- 
ments ot  husbandry. 

"Brothers,  we  here  ask  you,  are  you  still  de-- 
sirous  to  be  instructed  by  us,  in  the  cultivatiom 
of  your  lands  ?  If  you  say  you  are,  our  brother, 
whom  we  have  just  mentioned,  will  continue 
with  you  during-  the  summer.  We  shall  leave 
it  to  you  to  show  him  the  spot  where  to  begin 
to  work. 

"  Brothers,  he  has  left  a  farm,  he  has  left  a 
wife,  and  five  small  children,  who  are  very  dear 
to  him;  he  has  come  from  a  sincere  desire  to  be 
useful  to  our  red  brothers.  His  motives  are 
pure,  he  will  ask  no  reward  from  you,  for  his 
services,  his  greatest  reward  will  be  in  the  satis- 
faction he  will  feel  in  finding  you  inclined  to 
take  hold  of  the  same  tools  which  he  takes  hold 
of,  to  receive  from  him  instruction  in  the  culti- 
vation of  your  lauds,  and  to  pursue  the  example 
he  will  set  you. 

*'  Brothers,  we  hope  you  will  make  the  situa- 
tion of  our  brother  as  comfortable  as  circum- 
stances will  admit.  ^\e  hope,  also,  that  many 
of  your  young  men  will  be  willing  to  be  taught 
by  him,  to  use  the  plough,  the  hoe,  and  other 
implements  of  husbandry.  For  we  are  sure, 
brothers,  that  as  you  take  hold  of  such  tools  as 
are  in  the  hands  of  the  white  people,  you  will 
find  them  to  be  to  you  like  having  additional 
hands.     You  will  also  find  that  by  using  them, 


th'dj  will  enable  you  to  do  many  thiEgs  which, 
without  them,  cannot  be  performed 

"  Brothers,  there  is  one  thing  more  which  we 
wish  to  add.  The  white  people,  in  order  to  get 
their  land  cultivated,  find  it  nec-essary  that  their 
joung  men  should  be  employed  in  it,  and  not 
their  womea.  Women  are  less  than  men.  They 
are  not  as  strong  as  men.  They  are  not  as  able 
to  endure  fatigue  as  men.  It  is  the  business  of 
our  women  to  be  employed  in  our  houses,  to 
keep  them  cl-ean,  to  sew,  to  knit,  spin,  and 
weave,  to  dress  food  for  themselves  and  families, 
to  make  clothes  for  the  men  and  the  rest  of  their 
families,  to  keep  the  clothes  of  their  families 
clean,  and  to  take  care  of  their  children. 

"  Brothers,  we  desire  not  to  mention  too  many 
things  to  you,  but  we  must  add  a  little  further. 
We  are  fully  convinced  that  if  you  will  turn  your 
attention  to  the  cultivation  of  the  earth,  to  rais- 
ing the  different  kinds  of  grain,  to  erecting  mills 
for  grinding  grain,  to  building  comfortable  dwell- 
ing-houses for  your  families,  to  raising  useful 
animals — amongst  others,  sheep,  for  the  advan- 
tage of  the  wool,  in  making  clothing — to  raisiug 
flax  and  hemp  for  your  linen;  and  your  young 
women  learn  to  spin  and  weave,  that  your  lives 
would  be  easier  and  happier  than  at  present, 
and  that  your  numbers  will  increase,  and  not 
continue  to  diminish.  As  we  before  observed, 
brothers,  your  land  is  good.  It  is  far  better 
than  the  land  the  white  people  near  the  great 


water  cultivate.  "We  are  persuaded  that  your 
land  will  prt)duce  double  the  quantity  of  any 
kind  of  grain,  or  of  flaX;  or  of  hemp^  with  the 
same  labor  necessary  near  the  great  water. 

^'  Brothers  and  Friends  :  We  shall  now  end 
what  we  have  to  say,  with  informing  you  that 
all  the  corn,  and  other  productions  of  the  earth, 
which  Philip  Dennis  may  raise,  we  wish  our 
red  brethren  to  accept  of,  as  a  token  of  our 
friendship.  And  it  is  our  desire  that  the  chiefs 
of  the  Pottowataniy  and  3Iiami  nations,  who 
are  now  present,  added  to  our  brothers,  the  Five 
Medals,  Tuthenipee,  and  Philip  Dennis,  make 
such  a  distribution  thereof  as  they  may  think 

The  Indians  observed  great  gravity  and  de- 
corum, during  the  time  of  our  addressing  them, 
and  seemed  to  reiterate  the  sentiments  delivered 
by  repeated  shouts. 

At  the  close  of  our  communication,  a  short 
pause  took  place,  during  which  we  informed 
them  that  we  had  no  more  to  add  at  present, 
but  wished  them  to  speak  freely.  After  which 
a  conversation,  occupying  several  minutes  took 
place   between    the    chiefs,  and    some    of  their 

*  The  address  was  published  in  pamphlet  form  in 
Baltimore,  by  the  Indian  Committee  in  1804,  and  also 
appeared  in  the  newspapers  of  the  period,  and  was 
much  commended  for  its  earnest  and  enlightened 
simplicity.  "  T. 


principal  men,  which  being  in  the  Indian  lan- 
guage was  to  us  unintelligible.  They  then  rosa 
upon  their  feet,  and  shook  hands  with  us  with 
great  solemnity,  and  then  returned  to  their 

In  a  few  moments  the  Little  Turtle  arose  and 
delivered  the  following  speech,  which  one  of  us* 
wrote  in  short  hand,  from  the  mouth  of  the  In- 

^'  Brothers,  it  appears  to  me  to  be  necessary 
that  I  should  give  you  an  immediate  answer,  as 
you  are  about  to  return  to  your  families  from 
whence  you  came. 

"  My  Brothers  and  Friends,  we  are  all  pleased 
to  see  you  here,  and  to  take  our  brothers,  the 
Quakers,  through  you  by  the  hand.  We  re- 
joice that  the' Great  Spirit  has  appointed  that 
we  should  this  day  meet.  For  we  believe,  that 
this  meeting  will  be  of  the  utmost  consequence 
to  your  red  brethren. 

"  Brothers,  what  you  have  said,  we  have  care- 
fully gathered  up,  we  have  placed  it  in  our  hearts, 
in  order  that  it  may  be  communicated  to  our 
posterity.  We  are  convinced  that  what  you 
have  said  is  for  the  good  of  your  red  brethren- 
We  are  also  convinced  that  our  chiefs  and  war- 
riors, our  women  and  children  will  be  all  of  our 

•■^  Gerard   Llopkius,  who   Tras   a   fine   short   iiand 
writer.  T. 


opinion,  and  will  be  glad  when  they  have  heardl 
what  you  have  said. 

"  Brothers,  we  take  you  now  by  the  hand,  and! 
through  you  we  take  the  people  who  sent  youi 
here  by  the  hand,  and  assure  you  we  are  pleasedli 
that  the  Great  Spirit  has  let  us  see  each  other,, 
and  converse  together  upon  the  subjects  whiehi 
you  have  communicated  to  us. 

"  Brothers,  you  see  there  is  not  a  large  num- 
ber of  us  here.  What  you  have  said  to  us  will  I 
not  remain  with  those  who  are  here  alone.  Itt 
will  be  communicated  to  all  your  red  brethreni 
in  this  country.  And  I  again  repeat,  that  I  ami 
convinced  they  will  be  glad  to  hear  what  you; 
have  said  to  us,  to  our  women  and  children. 

"  Brothers,  when  we  saw  you  with  the  rest  of 
our  brothers  in  Baltimore,  upwards  of  two  years 
ago,  I  expect  you  recollect  perfectly  the  conver- 
sation between  us  at  that  time  and  piace.  I,, 
there  with  my  brother  chiefs,  told  you  that  we 3 
were  glad  to  find  you  so  much  disposed  to  assist t 
us,  our  women  and  children.  We  told  you  thatt 
your  good  wishes  should  be  made  known  to  alll 
your  red  brethren  in  this  country,  which  has' 
been  done. 

"  Brothers,  ever  since  that  time,  I,  as  well  as 
some  others  of  my  brother  chiefs,  have  been  en- 
deavoring to  turn  the  minds  of  our  people  to- 
wards the  cultivation  of  the  earth,  but  I  am 
sorry  to  say  we  have  not  yet  been  able  to  effect 
any  thing. 


"  Brothers,  there  are  so  few  of  our  chiefs  now 
ipresent,  it  would  not  be  proper  for  us  to  jinder- 
take  to  give  a  pointed  answer  to  your  talk.  We 
expect  that  in  a  few  moons  there  will  be  many 
of  our  people  together.  At  that  time  it  will  be 
proper  that  we  should  return  an  ansvv'er  to  all 
the  subjects  you  now  mention  to  us. 

"  Brothers,  the  things  you  have  said  to  us  re- 
quire the  greatest  attention.  It  appears  to  me 
to  be  really  necessary  to  deliberate  upon  them. 
In  order  to  do  so,  we  must  beg  to  leave  the  paper 
upon  which  they  are  written,  that  we  may  com- 
municate them  to  our  chiefs  when  they  assemble^ 

"  Brothers,  all  the  words  which  you  have  said 
to-day  were  certainly  calculated  for  our  good. 
You  have  enumerated  to  us  the  different  kinds 
of  grain  and  animals  we  ought  to  raise  for  our 
comfort.  You  have  told  us  that  if  we  all  adopt 
the  plan  you  have  proposed,  we  should  want  for 
nothing.  This,  brothers,  myself  and  many  of  our 
people  believe  is  true,  and  we  hope  we  shall 
finally  be  able  to  convince  our  young  men  that 
this  is  the  plan  we  ought  to  adopt  to  get  our 

"  Brothers,  you  have  come  a  long  distance  to 
render  service  to  us.  We  hope  that  you  will 
meet  with  the  success  you  wish,  you  have  been 
very  particular  in  pointing  out  to  us  what  will 
be  for  our  good.  You  have  also  been  very  par- 
ticular in  pointing  out  to  us  the  duties  of  our 
women,  and  you  have  told  us  that  in  adopting 


your  mode  of  liviog^  our  numbers  would  increae 
and  not  diminish.  In  all  this  I  perfectly  agre 
with  you.  And  I  hope  the  other  chiefs  wl 
also  agree  with  you. 

"  Brothers,  we  are  pleased  to  hear  you  sai 
you  are  going  to  leave  one  of  your  brothers  witi 
us,  to  show  us  in  what  manner  you  cultivate  th 
earth.  We  shall  endeavor,  brothers,  to  mak 
his  situation  amongst  us  as  agreeable  to  him  a 
will  be  possible  for  us. 

'^  Brothers,  we  are  convinced  that  the  plai 
you  propose  will  be  highly  advantageous  to  you 
red  brethren,  We  are  also  convinced  that  yoi 
have  observed  very  justly  that  we  shall  not  thei 
be  liable  to  sickness.  We  are  certain  that  Wf 
ghall  then  be  able  to  make  a  more  comfortabh 
living  with  less  labor  than  at  present.  And  ] 
hope  that  this  will  be  the  opinion  of  us  all, 

'^  Brothers,  I  again  repeat  that  I  am  extreme 
ly  glad  to  hear  the  words  you  have  said,  and  W( 
will  keep  them  in  our  hearts  for  the  good  of  oui 
young  men,  our  women,  and  our  children,  ] 
have  now  delivered  to  you  the  sentiments  of  oui 
people  who  are  present." 

After  a  short  pause  he  then  added  : 

"  Brothers,  assure  your  people  who  sent  you 
here,  tell  your  old  chiefs  that  we  are  obliged  tc 
them  for  their  friendly  offers  to  assist  us  in 
changing  our  present  mode  of  living ;  tell  them 
that  it  is  a  work  which  caonot  be  done  immedkUe 


ly, — tliafc  we  are  tliat  vmy  disposed ,  and  we  liope 
it  will  take  place  gradually/' 

Here  the  speaker  sat  down  for  a  sbort  time, 
and  then  rose  again,  saying, 

''  Brothers,  my  heart  is  so  overjoyed  and 
warmed  with  what  you  have  said,  that  I  find  I 
had  forgot  to  mention  one  of  the  most  important 

'^  Brothers,  at  the  time  we  first  met  at  this 
place,  the  Five  Medals  and  myself  formed  some 
idea  of  your  business.  We  expected  you  had 
come  to  do  for  us  the  things  you  had  proposed 
to  us  when  in  Baltimore,  We  consulted  each 
other  upon  the  answer  necessary  to  return  to 
you  in  every  respect,  and  I  now  find  that  our 
idea  was  right. 

''  Brothers,  the  sentiments  which  I  have  de* 
livered  to  you  were  his  seotiments.  You  have 
now  told  us,  that  your  brother  has  a  mind  to 
Hve  amongst  us  to  show  us  how  to  cultivate  the 
earth,  and  have  desired  us  to  show  him  the  spot 
where  to  begin.  We  agreed  then,  that  he  should 
be  at  neither  of  our  villages,  lest  our  younger 
brothers  should  be  jealous  of  our  taking  him  to 
ourselves.  We  have  determined  to  place  him 
on  the  Wabash,  where  some  of  our  families  will 
follow  him, — where  our  young  men  I  hope  will 
flock  to  him,  and  where  he  will  be  able  to  in- 
struct them  as  he  wishes.  This  is  all  I  have  to 
say.  I  could  all  day  repeat  the  sentiments  I 
have  already  expressed ;  also  how  much  I  have 



been  gratified  in  seeing  and  hearing  my  brofiiors 
but  that  is  not  necessary.     I  am  sorry,  brother; 
that  the  chiefs  of  our  country  are  not  all  presen 
that  they  might  all  hear  what  you  have  said,  am 
have  an  opportunity  of  talking  to  you/' 

At  the  close  of  this  speech  we  were  informe 
that  nothing  would  be  added  by  the  Indians  t 
the  communication  made  by  the  Little  Turtldi 
We  then  told  them  that  the  words  spoken  bb 
the  Little  Turtle  should  be  carefully  carrie' 
home  to  our  brothers  and  friends  who  had  sen 
us.  We  also  informed  them  that  notwithstandiDi 
we  were  now  desirous  to  return  to  our  homes  si 
soon  as  possible,  yet  we  wished  to  see  the  plac 
which  they  designed  to  be  the  station  of  ou 
brother,  Philip  Dennis,  and  hoped  some  of  tbei 
would  show  it  to  us.  We  further  added,  tbi 
this  did  not  arise  from  any  jealousy  in  ou 
minds  that  the  place  fixed  upon  was  not  suitablt 
On  the  contrary,  we  had  no  doubt  that  they  ha 
judged  wisely ;  but  that  the  love  and  respec 
which  we  bore  to  our  brother,  led  us  to  desire  t 
bear  him  company  to  the  place,  and  also  to  rer 
der  him  every  assistance  in  our  power  before  w 
left  him. 

They  then  informed  us  that  they  would  coi 
suit  and  fix  upon  some  one  to  go  with  us.  Th 
business  of  the  council  being  then  at  an  end,  ^ 
in  turn  rose  from  our  seats,  and  shook  hand 
with  them,  which  concluded  the  formalities  c 
the   opportunity.     After  entering  into  a  littl 

THE  WESTERN  INDIANS.         ,  85 

onvcrsation,  we  told  them  we  should  -rjow  bid 
hem  farewell,  as  we  expected  we  should  not  see 
hem  again.  They  then  took  us  separately  by 
he  hand,  and  with  marks  of  great  affection  and 
riendship  bade  us  farewell,  and  we  returned  to 
lur  quarters. 

4th  month  12th.  Being  a  fine  pleasant  morn- 
ing we  set  out  for  the  place  on  the  Wabash  as- 
signed by  the  Indians  to  Philip  Dennis.  We 
hrere  accompanied  by  William  AVells  and  Mas- 
anonga,  (or  Clear  Sky,)  a  handsome  young  man 
if  the  Wea  tribe,  deputed  by  the  Indians  to 
)ilot  us,  who  (by  the  bye)  says  he  shall  be  the 
irst  young  man  to  take  hold  of  Philip  Dennis' 

After  riding  eight  miles,  we  came  to  the  place 
ailed  the  Portage,  on  Little  river,  a  navigable 
vater  of  the  Wabash.  Then  down  the  margin 
>f  the  river,  leaving  it  to  our  left.  At  the  end 
)f  four  miles,  crossed  Sandy  Creek,  another  navi- 
able  water  of  the  Wabash ;  then  proceeded 
hrough  the  woods,  and  at  the  end  of  thirteen 
niles  further  again  came  to  Little  river,  at  a 
)lace  called  the  Saddle.  This  name  is  derived 
rom  a  large  rock  in  the  bed  of  the  river  in  the 
hape  of  a  saddle.  From  the  Saddle  we  pro- 
ceded  six  miles  along  the  margin  of  the  river 
0  its  junction  with  the  Wabash. 

The  bed  of  the  Wabash  here  is  of  limestone. 
\fter  riding  five  miles  further,  we    came  to  a 

86  JOURNAL   OF   A   VISIT   TO 

vein  of  land  about  one  mile  in  widtb,  the  sur 
face  of  which  is  covered  with  small  flint  stones 
and  which  we  are  told  extends  for  several  miles 
On  examining  these  flints,  we  found  them  o 
excellent  quality. 

Here  the  Indians  supply  themselves  with  flint, 
for  their  guns  and  for  other  purposes,  and  hen 
formerly  they  procured  their  darts,  it  has  cer 
tainly  been  a  place  abundantly  resorted  to  fron 
time  immemorial.  This  is  evident  from  the  sur 
face  of  the  ground  being  dug  in  holes  of  twoanc 
three  feet  in  depth,  over  nearly  the  whole  tract 
This  flinty  vein  is  called  by  the  Indians  Fathe 
Flint.  They  have  a  tradition  concerning  it 
origin  which  is  very  incredible.  From  this  w^ 
proceeded,  and  after  riding  two  miles,  reachei 
the  place  proposed  by  the  Indians. 

This  place  is  thirty-two  miles  rather  south  o 
west  from  Fort  Way  be,  and  is  situated  on  th^ 
Wabash,  at  a  place  called  the  Boat-yard,  whicl 
name  it  obtained  from  the  circumstance  o 
General  Wilkinson  having  built  some  flat 
bottomed  boats  here,  for  the  purpose  of  tran 
sporting  some  of  the  baggage  of  the  America] 
troops  down  the  river.  It  was  formerly  the  sea 
of  an  Indian  town  of  the  Delawares,  and  we  ar^ 
pleased  to  find  there  are  about  twenty-five  acre 
of  land  clear.  The  Wabash  here  makes  a  beau 
tiful  appearance,  and  is  about  sixty  yards  wide 
A  little  above  is  an  island  in  the  river,  on  on^ 
side  of  which  the  water  runs  with  a  strong  cur 


rent,  and  affords  a  good  mill  seat.  We  viewed 
the  land  in  this  neighborhood  for  a  considerable 
distance,  and  found  it  high  and  of  superior 
auality,  being  covered  with  sugar  trees  of  enor- 
nous  size,  black  walnut,  white  walnut,  hack- 
Derry,  blue  ash,  oak,  buckeye  trees,  &c.,  all  very 
large.  The  land  appears  to  be  equal  in  quality 
to  any  we  have  seen,  not  excepting  the  bottoms 
of  the  Scioto  and  Paint  Creek.  About  half  a 
piile  below,  a  handsome  creek  falls  into  the  river 
from  the  north,  which  we  traced  for  a  consider- 
able distance,  and  are  convinced  it  affords  a  good 
mill  seat.  This  creek  bearing  no  name,  we  called 
it  Dennis'  Creek  in  honor  of  Philip  Dennis. 

As  night  approached,  Massanonga,  taking  his 
knife,  left  us,  and  in  about  fifteen  minutes  re- 
turned with  a  remarkably  fine  turkey.  This  he 
prepared  and  roasted  for  us  in  a  very  nice  and 
expeditious  manner,  on  which  we  fared  sumptu- 
ously. At  9  o'clock  we  wrapped  ourselves  in 
our  blankets,  and  laid  down  to  sleep  before  the 
fire,  having  no  shelter,  The  night  was  frosty  ; 
we,  however,  slept  tolerably  and  took  no  cold. 

In  the  night  the  otters  were  very  noisy  along 
the  river,  the  deer  also  approached  our  fire  and 
made  a  whistling  noise  ;  the  wolves  howled,  and 
at  the  dawn  of  day  turkies  gobbled  in  ail  direc-? 

18 th.  Early  this  morning  we  arose,  and 
breakfasted  on  the  remains  of  the  turkey  cooked 
last  evening,  after  which  we  tod  upon  the  place 


for  Philip  Dennis'  farm  ;  we  also  staked  out  the 
situation  for  liis  wigwam,  which  is  about  om 
hundred  feet  from  the  banks  of  the  Wabash,  anc 
opposite  to  a  fine  spring  of  excellent  water  issuing 
out  of  the  bank  of  the  river. 

We  are  told  by  several  persons  well  acquainted 
with  the  country,  that  from  hence  to  St.  Vin- 
ceunes,  on  the  Wabash,  a  distance  of  two  hun- 
dred miles  by  land,  and  three  hundred  and  fiftv 
by  water,  the  land  on  both  sides  of  the  river 
embracing  a  very  extensive  width,  is  not  inferioi 
to  the  description  given  of  this  location  in  yes- 
terday's notes. 

At  Mississinaway,  a  large  Indian  town  of  the 
3Iiami's,  situated  about  thirty  miles  below  us, 
on  the  Wabash,  stone  coal  is  found,  which  with 
limestono  continues  for  two  hundred  miles  down 
the  river. 

There  are  no  Indians  between  this  and  Fort 
Wayne,  neither  any  between  this  and  Mississin- 
away. Philip  Dennis'  nearest  neighbors  will  be 
at  the  Little  Turtle's  town,  eighteen  miles  dis- 
tant. Whilst  here  we  have  seen  four  peroques 
loaded  with  peltry,  manned  by  Canadians  and  In- 
dians, on  their  way  up  the  river  to  be  tran- 
sported to  Detroit. 

I  may  here  observe  that  the  Wabash  affords 
an  abundance  of  large  turtles,  called  soft  shelled 
turtles,  the  outer  coat  being  a  hard  skin,  rather 
than  a  shell.  They  are  esteemed  excellent  food. 
It  also   affords  a  great  variety  of  fine   fish,  and 


we  saw  ducks  in  abundance ;  we  are  told  it  is  re- 
sorted to  by  geese  and  swans. 

About  8  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  set  out 
for  Fort  Wayne,  where  we  arrived  about  3  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon,  and  after  dining  with  William 
Wells  returned  to  our  lodgings. 

14th.  I  may  here  observe  that  some  days  ago 
we  came  to  a  conclusion  to  return  home  by  the 
way  of  the  lakes  ;  to  this  we  have  been  induced 
from  a  hope  that  we  shall  be  subjected  to  fewer 
difficulties  and  much  less  fatigue  than  to  retrace 
the  way  by  which  we  came;  and  I  may  also 
add,  that  we  have  been  encouraged  to  this  by 
the  advice  of  our  kind  friends  heretofore  named, 
who  have  with  much  apparent  cheerfulness 
offered  to  prepare  a  way  for  us;  and  this  morn- 
ing being  informed  by  our  worthy  friend,  Cap- 
tain Whipple,  that  the  boat  intended  for  us 
would  be  in  readiness  against  to-morrow,  we 
spent  the  day  in  making  preparations,  and  in 
writing  to  our  families. 

15th.  This  morning  we  bade  both  a  joyful 
and  sorrowful  farewell  to  Philip  Dennis,  and 
the  two  young  men  who  accompanied  us  out. 
We  also  took  leave  of  those  generally  with  whom 
we  had  formed  an  acquaintance,  first  breakfast- 
ing with  Captain  Whipple,  whose  hearty  kind- 
ness to  us  has  been  so  often  repeated,  that  his 
name  will  deservedly  claim  a  place  in  cur  re- 
membrance. He  has  fitted  out  a  perogue  for  us 


and  manned  it  with  a  corporal  and  private 
soldier  from  the  fort ;  and,  joined  by  John  John- 
son and  William  Wells,  has  stocked  it  with  ar 
apparent  superabundant  supply  both  for  eating 
and  drinking. 

About  8  o'clock  we  embarked  for  Detroit,  pro- 
ceeded about  thirty  miles  down  the  Miami  of  the 
lakeS;  and  in  the  evening  encamped  under  a  tent 
near  the  margin  of  the  river.  With  respect  tc 
the  appearance  of  the  country,  the  same  old 
phrase  must  be  continued ;  "  land  of  excellent 
quality."  We  several  times  went  ashore  to  view 
the  river  bottoms,  they  were  extensive  and  ap- 
peared to  be  first  rate  land.  The  timber,  buct 
eye,  ash,  elm,  sugar  tree,  oak,  hickory,  black 
and  jvhite  walnut,  &c.  We  saw  ducks  in  abun- 
dance, and  Corporal  King  says  they  breed  here 
in  great  numbers.  This  river  affords  a  variety 
of  fine  fish,  and  mostly  of  descriptions  very  dif- 
ferent from  those  found  in  our  salt  waters.  01 
these  the  following  are  some  of  the  names; 
black,  yellow,  and  white  bass,  covers,  pickerel.' 
suckers,  herrings,  muscanago,  gar,  pike,  catfish, 
sheeps-head,  carp,  and  sturgeon.  These  are  all 
caught  with  the  hock  except  the  two  last. 

The  sturgeon  are  now  on  their  way  from  the 
lake  to  the  head  waters  of  the  St.  Joseph's  and 
St.  Mary's  rivers.  In  company  with  the  Little 
Turtle,  our  friends,  John  Johnson,  William 
Wells,  and  some  others,  whilst  at  Fort  Wayne, 
the  conversation  turned  upon  fish^  and  the  then 


'UUDing  up  of  the  sturgeon  ;  the  Little  Turtle 
\rery  huaiorously  proposed  to  Johnson  a  project, 
^hich  was  to  join  in  building  a  stone  dam  at  the 
junction  of  the  two  rivers,  to  prevent  the  sturgeon 
from  getting  back  again  to  the  lake,  and  then  said 
lie  '•'  you  and  I  will  live  on  them  this  summer.'' 
We  observed  to-day  (15th,)  several  hunting 
and  sugar  camps,  and  went  on  shore  to  visit  two 
of  the  latter.  The  camps  were  well  supplied 
with  jerk  venison,  dried  raccoon,  sturgeon,  &c. ; 
one  man  only  was  at  the  camp,  and  he  was  em- 

if  ployed  with  his  knife  in  making  a  paddle  for  his 
canoe.  A  squaw  was  knitting  a  bag,  and  an- 
other was  preparing  the  bark  of  the  buckeye  for 
thread,  strings,  &c.,  by  beating  it  with  a  piece 
of  wood.  We  saw  amongst  them  several  fat  and 
healthy  looking  children,  who  were  playful  and 
did  not  appear  to  be  afraid  of  us.  The  children 
presented  us  with  a  quarter  of  fresh  venison,  for 
jwhich  we  returned  them  some  salt  meat  and  bis- 
cuit, with  which  they  were  pleased.  Here  we 
saw  a  child  about  six  months  old  fixed  to  a  board 

1,  in  the  genuine  Indian  fashion.  The  board  was 
straight,  about  fifteen  inches  in  width,  and  two 
and  a  half  feet  in  length,  having  at  its  head  a 
circular  handle,  and  at  the  foot  a  small  ledge. 
To  this  the  child  was  lashed  by  cloth  bandages, 
and  so  tight  that  it  could  not  move  hand  or  foot. 
iThe  board  was  placed  against  a  tree,  almost  per- 
pendicularly, and  the  infant  asleep — of  course  in 

I  |a  standing  position.     The  child  was  painted  very 


red,  and  had  silver  bandages  about  its  wrists- 
and  ornaments  of  the  same  metal  in  its   ears 
The  Indians  are  very  fond  of  their  children,  and 
put  about  them  very  costly  silver  ornaments. 

I  have  seen  Indian  children  dressed  in  a  caliccd 
frock  which  was  stuck  with  silver  broaches  from 
neck  to  heel,  besides  ornaments  on  the  wrists.^ 
in  the  ear,  and  about  the  neck  and  head. 

4th  month  16th.  Proceeded  very  pleasantly; 
down  the  river  about  fifty  miles,  and  at  nighii 
encamped  under  our  tent.  In  the  evening  ii 
severe  thunder  gust  came  on,  with  heavy  raini 
which  continued  for  several  hours  after  night 
but  having  a  good  tent  we  did  not  get  mucl 
wetted.  In  the  course  of  the  day  we  saw  wile 
fowl  in  abundance,  also  passed  by  several  Indiar 
hunting  and  sugar  camps.  Our  Corporal  is  verj 
fond  of  saluting  the  camps  with  an  imitation  o: 
an  Indian  whoop,  which  they  are  sure  to  answei 
by  a  similar  note.  This  whoop  very  nearly  re 
sembles  the  shrill  yelp  of  a  dog.  The  land  ap' 
pears  to  be  of  an  excellent  quality,  and  deer  anci 
turkies  are  very  numerous.     Here  also 

'^  The  prowling  wolf  howls  hideous  all  night  long, 
And  owls  vociferate  the  dread  response." 

17th.  Proceeded  about  thirty-five  miles,  and  a 
night  encamped  under  our  tent.  We  have  beer 
entertained  to-day  with  a  diversified  scene.  The 
river  covered  with  wild  fowl,  fish  jumping  uj 
around  uS;  and  turkies  flying. 


We  stopped  a  short  time  to  view  the  remains 
of  Fort  Defiance.  This  fort  was  built  by  Gene- 
ral Wayne,  in  the  course  of  his  march  to  attack 
the  Indians.  The  situation  is  very  beautiful  and 
commanding,  at  the  junction  of  the  river  Great 
A.U  Glaize  with  the  Miami.  The  two  rivers 
make  a  large  body  of  water,  the  width  being 
about  two  hundred  yards.  A  Canadian  trader 
only  resides  here.  We  also  went  on  shore  several 
times  to  visit  Indian  towns  and  camps.  Great 
numbers  of  Indians  are  settled  upon  the  banks 
of  the  Miami ;  they  are  chiefly  of  the  Ottoway 
and  Shawnese  tribes.  They  appeared  pleased 
at  receiving  visitors.  Their  children  were  very 
iantic,  and  seemed  to  leap  for  joy  on  seeing  us 
ipiand  ;  doubtless  from  a  hope  of  receiving  some 
ipresents.  The  hunters  are  returning  to  their 
1  towns,  and  many  of  their  wigwams  are  stocked 

th    peltry,   dried  raccoon,  and  jerk   venison. 

They  are  on  their  way  to  tlie  foot  of  the  rapids. 

^he   women   are  mostly  employed  in   knitting 

]foags  and    belts   and  in    making   moccasins.     A 

considerable  number  of  Indians  are  on  the  river 

in  bark  canoes  loaded  with  peltry.     They  are  on 

the  way  to  the  foot  of  the  rapids  and  other  places 

for  the  purpose  of  exchanging  their  peltry  with 

(tlie  traders  for  goods.     Most  of  the  wigwams  we 

ohave  seen  to-day  are  covered  with  rushes  sewed 

e  together,  which  are  procured  from  the  shores  of 

njLake  Erie,  and  so  put  together,  that  the  covering 

will  turn  any  fall  of  rain.     An  Indian  house  is 


constructed  bj  putting  two  forks  into  the  ground, 
and  a  horizontal  piece  from  one  fork  to  the 
other.  Upon  this  piece  rest  long  pieces  of  bark,, 
with  the  other  end  upon  the  earth  at  a  conveni-- 
ent  distance,  thus  sheltering  them  from  the 
weather.  Sometimes  they  make  circular  wig- 
wams, by  putting  small  saplings  into  the  ground! 
in  circular  order,  then  bringiug  the  other  ends? 
to  a  point,  they  tie  them  together.  These  they 
either  cover  with  bark  or  with  the  rush  mats 
before  described. 

To-day  we  passed  a  place  called  Girty's  town, 
noted  for  the  former  residence  of  Simon  Grirty. 

18th.  Proceeded  about  thirty-three  miles.  In; 
the   earlier  part  of  the  day  we  passed    several; 
creeks  and  small  streams,  and  at  length  reached- 
what  is  called  the  head  of  the  rapids,  The  river  is^ 
here  about  four  hundred  yards  wide.     The  noise 
of  the  falls  informed  us  of  our  approach,  long  be^ 
fore    we  reached  them.     Having  reason  to  be- 
lieve that  our  peroque  was  manned  by  careful! 
hands,  we  resolutely  entered  the  rapids  and  de-- 
Bcended  with  great  velocity  down  the  fall  for  the 
distance   of  eighteen  miles  to  the  foot  of  the 
rapids.    The  whole  of  this  distance  is  a  continued 
fall,  the  land  falling  with  the    same   regularity, 
and  generally  elevated  but  a  few  feet  above  the 
surface  of  the  water.     It  is  needless  to  say  that 
we  went  swiftly  down,   when  I  add,  that  it  is  ^ 
trip  occupying  but  one  hour  and  a  half. 

The  bed  of  the  river  is  a  solid  limestone  rock. 


At  the  foot  of  the  Rapids  we  lodged  all  night  at 
the  house  of  a  Canadian  trader,  ^vho  treated  us 
with  great  respect,  and,  though  a  tavern-keeper, 
would  receive  no  pay  from  us  for  our  supper, 
lodgings,  or  breakfast.  A  considerable  encamp- 
ment of  Indians,  who  had  come  to  trade  with 
him  was  near  his  house.  They  were  very  merry 
for  a  great  part  of  the  night,  keeping  up  a  con- 
tinued sound  of  their  favorite  instruments  of 
music,  amongst  them  the  drum  and  fife.  The 
former  is  made  of  part  of  the  body  of  a  hollow 
tree,  with  the  ends  covered  with  deer  skin,  upon 
rwhich  they  beat  with  sticks,  the  latter  they 
make  of  reed  into  which  they  bore  holes  some- 
what in  imitation  of  a  fife.  The  foot  of  the 
Rapids  is  rendered  well  known  in  American  his- 
tory, as  having  been  a  place  of  frcqnent  ren- 
dezvous by  the  Indians,  previous  to  their  defeat 
by  General  Wayne.  Here  also  the  Indians  burnt 
many  of  the  white  men  who  were  taken  prisoners 
by  them.  To  this  place  Wayne  marched,  and 
here  he  met  and  defeated  the  Indian  army. 

About  eight  miles  above  the  foot  of  the  Rapids 
and  near  the  centre  of  the  river,  in  a  very  rapid 
situation,  is  a  noted  rock  called  by  the  Cana- 
dians, Rochede  Bout,  (or  standing  rock.)  This 
rock  is  about  thirty  feet  in  height  above  the 
surface  of  the  water,  and  the  same  in  diameter. 
The  top  has  the  regular  appearance  of  the  roof 
of  a  house,  and  the  body  of  the  rock  is  circular. 
Its  appearance   is  additionally  handsome  from 


the  circumstance  of  the  roof,  as  it  is  called,  being 
covered  with  cedar. 

Fish  are  now  passing  up  the  Rapids  in  great 
numbers  from  the  lakes,  iasomuch  that  the  water' 
smells  strongly  of  them.  They  are  taken  very 
abundantly  by  the  Canadians  and  Indians.  The 
fisherman  without  seeing  them  strikes  his  barbec 
spear  to  the  rocks,  which  often  passes  througbi 
several  at  a  time,  and  frequently  of  differeni; 
kinds.  The  muscanonje  are  taken  here  in  grealf 
numbers  ;  they  are  a  fish  from  three  to  five  feet  it 

19th.  This  morning  we  proceeded  with  diffii 
culty  ten  miles  ;  owing  to  high  winds,  and  a  rairi 
coming  on,  prudence  seemed  to  dictate  that  w(» 
should  put  into  a  harbor,  which  we  did  at  thet 
mouth  of  Swan  creek,  where  is  a  small  fort  anc( 
garrison  lately  estabhshed  by  the  United  States- 
Introductory  letters  were  given  us  at  Fori 
AVayne,  to  Lieutenant  Rhea,  the  Commandant! 
which  we  delivered.  He  treated  us  with  respectt 
and  with  him  we  spent  the  remainder  of  the  dar 
and  lodged.  Ou  our  way  we  stopped  to  view  an 
old  fort,  called  Fort  Miami,  which  was  garrisoneci 
by  the  British  at  the  time  Wayne  defeated  thd 

Many  Indian  villages  and  wigwams  are  seatec 
on  both  shores  of  the  river,  and  many  Canadiai 
traders  are  to  be  found  residing  amongst  them 
They  have  generally  intermarried  with  the  In^ 
dians,  and  adopted  their  manners.     Some  of  thi 



ndian  houses  whicli  we  passed  to-day  are  bu\ 
f  small  round  logs,  and  are  roofed  with  bark 
s'ear  the  mouth  of  Swan  creek  is  an  extensive 
alley  of  which  we  took  a  particular  view.  Here 
be  Indians  placed  their  wives  and  children  at 
he  time  they  agreed  to  make  battle  with  Gene- 
al  Wayne. 

The  river  increases  in  width  from  the  foot  of 
he  Rapids  toward  the  lake.  It  is  more  than 
lalf  a  mile  wide  opposite  Swan  creek,  and  at 
Dresent  has  the  appearance  of  tide  water ;  a 
itrong  east  wind  having  brought  a  heavy  swell 
^rom  the  lake,  which  has  in  a  short  time  raised 
he  river  more  than  three  feet  in  perpendicular 
weight.  "We  saw  to-day  geese  and  swans  in 
rreat  abundance. 

20th.  This  morning  notwithstandinfr  the  very 
Unfavorable  appearance  of  the  weather,  it  being 
rainy  and  the  wind  high,  we  again  proceeded. 
^t  the  end  of  three  miles  we  reached  the  mouth 
3f  the  river,  where  we  entered  a  beautiful  circu- 
lar bay,  about  six  miles  in  diameter,  called  Miami 
bay.*  The  wind  continuing  high,  we  proceeded 
along  the  margin  of  the  bay,  for  about  ten  miles 
to  a  point  called  Bay  Point.  This  is  the  ex- 
treme point  of  land,  between  Miami  Bay  and 
Lake  Erie.  We  attempted  to  turn  the  point  in 
'order  to  enter  the  lake,  but  the  situation  being 
bleak  and  the   wind  high,  occasioned  a  heavy 

*  Now  called  Maumee  Bay. 


swell,  unci  apprehending  danger,  we  tliougbt  it 
most  advisable,  however  reluctantly,  to  put  tc 
shore  and  encamp. 

The  shore  of  that  part  of  the  bay  which  we 
have  passed,  as  also  of  the  lake  now  in  view,  is 
elevated  but  a  little  above  the  surface  of  th^j 
water.  The  country  is  level  and  appears  rich 
The  bay  is  resorted  to  by  vast  numbers  of  wile 

21st.  The  last  night  has  been  very  stormy  anr 
rainy.  Our  tent,  though  a  good,  one  did  no 
shelter  us  altogether  from  the  rain.  The  higl 
swells  in  the  course  of  the  night,  breaking  ove: 
our  peroque,  filled  and  sunk  her,  which  has  oc 
casioned  our  men  much  labor  and  difficulty.  Anc 
during  this  day  the  storm  continuing,  we  hav( 
been  obliged  to  remain  under  our  tent. 

22d.  About  midnight  the  clouds  dispersing 
wind  becoming  calm,  and  the  moon  shining  ven 
refulgently,  we  were  encouraged  again  to  embark 
notwithstanding  a  considerable  agitation  of  th. 
lake  from  the  storm,  and  were  successful  enougl 
to  turn  Bay  Point,  after  which  we  proceedec 
without  difficulty  to  Point  Raisin,  near  the  moutll 
of  the  river  Raisin,  (or  Grape  river,)  making  : 
distance  of  about  twelve  miles,  when  the  wine 
rising  we  made  an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  ge 
round  the  Point,  and  were  again  obliged  to  seel 
a  harbor  and  wait  for  a  calm.  Shortly  after  w« 
had  put  into  harbor  a  fish  approached  the  shorr 


ery  near  to  us  and  seemed  to  be  at  play.^  One 
f  our  men  advanced  toward  it  very  cautiously, 
nd  with  an  oar,  gave  it  a  blow  upon  the  tail, 
rhich  so  disabled  it  that  he  caught  it.  We 
ound  it  to  be  a  muscanonje,  measuring  four  feet 
wo  inches  in  length  and  proportionally  thick. 

he  muscanonje  is  from  head  to  tail  very  beau- 
ifully  spotted,  and  is  I  think  not  inferior  to  any 
ish  I  ever  tasted. 

!  For  several  days  past  we  have  been  not  a  little 
iiortified  at  being  confined  to  a  harbor,  whilst 
he  Indians  are  passing  us  very  frequently  in 
heir  bark  canoes.  It  is  astonishing  to  see  these 
anoes  riding  large  swells  without  danger.  It  is 
ertain  that  they  will  ride  waves  whose  height 
xceeds  their  length. 

Many  of  the  bark  canoes  of  the  Indians  have 
alien  under  our  observation.  They  are  gene- 
ally  made  of  the  bark  of  the  birch  tree,  and 
haped  differently.  We  have  seen  bark  canoes 
oaded  with  two  thousand  five  hundred  weight, 
^hich  were  so  light  that  two  men  could  carry 
hem  on  their  sheulders  with  great  ease,  The 
onstruction  of  the  smaller  description  of  these 
(oats  is  so  simple,  that  in  an  hour  they  will 
Lave  a  canoe  made  which  will  carry  several  per^ 
ons  across  their  rivers.  We  have  also  seen  many 
f  their  rafts.  These  are  made  for  crossing 
ivers  at  those  seasons  of  the  year  when  it  is  not 
asy  to  strip  the  bark  from  the  trees.  In  all  the 
iver  bottoms  the  buckeye  wood  is  to  be  found. 


This  they  prefer  for  making  a  raft,  on  account 
of  its  lightness  when  dried,  it  being  a  wood  nearly 
as  light  as  cork.  The  Indians  tie  together  small 
logs  of  the  buckeye  wood,  to  form  a  square  of 
about  five  or  six  fctit,  this  they  cross  by  pieces 
of  any  other  description  of  wood,  confining  piece 
to  piece  by  bark  strings,  splits  of  hoop  ash,  &c. 
Upon  a  raft  of  this  description,  three  or  four 
persons  will  cross  their  rivers  even  though  the 
currentbe  against  them. 

We  had  not  been  long  in  harbor,  before  our 
anxiety  to  proceed  exceeded  our  patience,  and 
observing  in  view  at  an  apparent  distance  of  one 
and  a  half  to  two  miles  from  us,  about  fifty 
bouses  resembling  a  village,  we  concluded  to 
abandon  our  peroque,  walk  to  the  settlement, 
and  then  endeavor  to  procure  horses  to  take  us 
to  Detroit. 

At  11  o'clock  this  morning  we  set  out  for  this 
purpose,  followed  by  our  men  with  our  baggage 
on  their  backs,  and  after  walking  over  a  wet 
prairie,  through  mud  and  water,  half  a  leg  and 
more  in  depth,  for  the  distance  of  nearly  six: 
miles,  we  reached  the  place.  Viewing  this  set- 
tlement from  the  lake,  and  over  a  tract  so  level 
that  the  elevation  between  it  and  us  did  not  ex- 
ceed two  feet,  occasioned  us  to  be  so  greatly  de- 
ceived in  the  distance.  On  arriving  we  found 
that,  instead  of  a  village,  it  was  a  settlement  oi 
French  farmers  situated  along  the  river  Pvaisin, 
and    presenting  a  very  beautiful   scene.      The 


farms  contain  from  sixty  to  eighty  acres,  laid  off 
in  parallelograms.  The  buildings  are  good,  and 
the  gardens  and  orchards  handsome.  We  un- 
derstand that  about  two  miles  higher  up  the  river 
there  is  another  settlement  composed  of  about 
forty  families,  and  upon  Otter  Creek,  about  four 
miles  distant,  a  third  settlement  containing  about 
thirty  families.  These  people  are  Roman  Ca- 
tholics. We  were  soon  informed  that  the  dis- 
tance from  here  to  Detroit  was  thirty-six  miles 
by  land,  and  that  the  road  passed  through  so  flat 
and  wet  a  country,  for  the  greater  part  of  the 
way,  that  at  this  season  of  the  year,  it  was  almost 
impossible  to  travel  it  on  horseback,  and  were 
advised  to  wait  on  the  wind  for  a  passage  by  water. 
W^e,  therefore,  concluded  to  take  lodgings  at 
the  house  of  John  Bedient,  who  has  offered  to 
entertain  us,  and  dispatched  our  men  to  the  boat, 
with  instructions  to  come  up  the  river  Raisin  for 
us,  as  soon  as  wind  and  weather  permitted ;  being 
so  wearied  and  overcome  with  our  "  Jack-o-Lan- 
tern''  excursion,  that  we  could  not  consent  to 
retrace  our  steps  to  the  boat. 

23d.  A  strong  west  wind,  attended  with  heavy 
rain  last  night  and  this  day,  have  prevented  our 
men  from  getting  to  us.  It  is  a  fact  well-known 
here,  that  northwest  and  west  winds  are  as  certain 
to  produce  cloudy  weather  as  easterly  winds  with 
us.  This  is  doubtless  owing  to  the  humidity  of 
the  vast  western  lakes.  The  same  winds  are 
severely  cold  in  winter_,  no  doubt  from  the  im- 


mense  bodies  of  ice  tlien  accumulated  upon  those 

24th.  This  morning  our  men  arrived  about  8 
o'clock,  with  the|)eroque,  the  wind  having  abated 
and  the  weather  fair.  We  again  embarked,  and 
on  our  way  down  the  river  Eaisin  were  amused 
with  the  great  numbers  of  wild-  geese,  which 
were  at  play  in  the  ponds  near  the  margin  of  the 
river.  They  feed  here  so  undisturbedly,  that 
though  we  were  within  gun  shot  of  them,  they 
took  but  little  notice  of  us.  We  again  entered 
the  lake,  and  encouraged  our  men  to  make  the 
best  of  its  smooth  surface.  They  proceeded  with 
great  industry,  and  at  night  we  reached  a  Wyan- 
dot town,  called  Brown's  town,  making  a  distance 
of  about  thirty  miles.  Here  we  concluded  to 
lodge  at  the  house  of  William  Walker,  who  is 
interpreter  for  those  of  the  Wyandot  nation  who 
are  settled  on  this  side  of  the  lake.  He  is 
married  to  an  Indian  woman  who  speaks  good 
Englifh,  and  is  very  conversible.  She  gave  us 
for  supper  bacon,  bear's  meat,  and  eggs  fried, 
also  a  dish  of  tea. 

Brownstown  is  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Detroit  river,  and  on  the  American  side.  The 
river  Detroit  is  a  vast  body  of  running  water. 
Its  mouth  is  two  miles  in  width,  and  the  water 
passes  out  of  it  into  the  lake  with  a  strong  cur- 
rent. Its  channel  is  wide,  generally  ten  fathoms 
in  depth,  and  in  many  places  much  deeper.  The 
name  Detroit  river  is  a  corruption.     Detroit,  a 


Frencli  word,  sig;nifies  the  Strait,  a  name  much 
more  appropos,  it  being  but  an  outlet  from  the 
waters  of  the  western  lakes  to  Lake  Erie, 

25th.  This  morning  our  cui*io?ity  led  us  to 
take  a  view  of  Brownstown.  The  village  contains 
about  one  hundred  houses,  which  are  generally 
built  of  small  round  logs,  and  roofed  with  elm 
bark.  These  Indians  cultivate  a  considerable 
quantity  of  corn,  and  their  fields  are  enclosed 
with  rails  of  their  own  splitting.  We  saw  a 
sample  of  the  wheat  which  they  had  raised  the 
last  season,  which  looked  well.  They  have  gar- 
dens and  a  considerable  number  of  fruit  trees. 
They  have  a  small  number  of  cattle,  and  raise  a 
large  number  of  hogs.  The  interpreter  says  they 
are  greatly  disposed  to  civilization,  and  have  re- 
quested of  the  United  States  to  furnish  them 
this  year  with  cattle,  instead  of  goods  or  money 
for  their  annuity. 

After  taking  breakfast,  we  again  embarked 
and  proceeded  up  the  river  Detroit,  passing  by 
another  Indian  town  called  AValk-in-the-Water 
village,  a  name  derived  from  the  principal  chief 
of  the  settlement.  The  village  contains  about 
twenty  houses,  and  bears  the  same  civilized  ap- 
pearance as  Brownstown. 

After  passing  the  river  Le  Cas  and  the  river 
Eange,  we  came  opposite  to  a  British  town 
called  Sandwich,  where,  upon  an  elevated  position, 
;we  beheld  the  horrible  spectacle  of  two  men 
hanging  in  gibbets. 


The  white  settlements,  on  both  the  AmericaQ 
and  British  shores  of  the  Detroit,  are  so  near 
together,  that  the  farms  resemble  villages,  j 
Nearly  opposite  Sandwich  is  Detroit,  which  we 
leached  about  5  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  andl 
proceeded  to  the  boarding  house  of  the  widows' 
Harrison,  to  whom  we  had  been  recommended,, 
having  come  eighteen  miles.  In  the  evening,. 
Charles  Jewett  and  several  others  came  to  see 
us  ;  they  told  us  they  had  heard  of  the  arrival  of 
some  strangers,  aad  expected  we  were  from  the 
interior  of  the  United  States ;  that  for  a  lon« 
time  they  had  received  no  account  from  the  seat 
of  government,  and  were  anxious  to  hear  the, 
news.  Having  an  open  letter  fi'om  the  Secre- 
tary of  War,  directed  to  Charles  Jewett,  and  to 
the  commanding  officer  at  Detroit,  we  embraced 
the  opportunity  to  pr6sent  it.  The  letter  was  as 
follows : 

^^War  Department,  February  20tli,  1S04. 

"  Gentlemen, — This  will  be  handed  you  by, 
Joel  Wright,  Greorge  Ellieott,  and  Gerard  Hop- 
kins. They  are  amongst  the  most  respectable 
members  of  the  Society  of  Friends  in  Maryland. 
Their  object  is  to  visit  some  of  the  western  In- 
dians, for  the  laudable  purpose  of  encouraging 
and  aiding  them  in  the  introduction  of  agricul- 
ture and  other  improvements  essential  to  the 
happiness  of  the  red  people.  They  are  men  of 
science^  information   and   property,  and  are   ea-. 


titled  to  tlie  civilities  and  attention  of  all  good 
men.  You  will  please  to  afford  them  every  aid, 
and  should  they  wish  to  cross  the  lake  from  De- 
troit to  Niagara,  and  a  public  vessel  being  about 
to  sail  for  that  place,  accommodations  should  be 
afforded  them  free  of  expense,  and  letters  of  in- 
jtroduction  given  them  to  Major  Porter. 
^'  I  am  respectfully 

"  Your  humble  servant, 

''  H.  Deareorn. 
'"To  the  Commanding  Officer  at  Detroit,  and  Charles 
I         Jewett,  Esq.,  Indian  Agent." 

Charles  Jewett  received  us  with  great  civility, 
and  has  invited  us  to  dine  with  him  to-morrow, 
jto  which  we  have  consented. 
I  4th  month  27th.  This  morning  Charles 
Jewett  again  called  upon  us,  and  at  his  request 
we  accompaaied  him  to  the  garrison,  and 
were  introduced  to  the  commanding  officer, 
Major  Pike,  who  appears  to  be  a  genteel  and 
clever  old  man.  He  informed  us  that  a  public 
vessel  would  sail  for  Niagara,  about  the  first  of 
the  ensuing  month,  and  recommended  us  very 
strongly  to  take  passage  in  her,  in  preference  to 
any  other  vessel,  she  being  in  good  order,  and 
under  the  management  of  mariners  well  ac- 
quainted with  the  lake.  This  vessel  is  under  his 

Agreeably  to  engagement,  we  dined  to-day  with 
Charles  Jewett.  The  revenue  officer  for  the  port 
of  Detroit,  Captain  Ernest,  also  diued  with  us, 


28th.  This  day  we  dined  with  Major  Pike,  in 
compliance  with  an  invitation  which  he  gave  us 
yesterday.  He  treated  us  with  great  respect  and 
attention,  and  appeared  to  be  pleased  with  our 
company.  New  Jersey  being  the  place  of  his 
nativity,  he  has  considerable  knowledge  of  our 
Society.  In  the  course  of  conversation  he  in- 
quired after  Peter  Yarnall,  and  says  that  Peter 
and  himself  were  in  the  same  military  company 
during  the  Revolutionary  war ;  he  had  not  heard 
of  his  death. 

The  following  circumstance,  as  related  by  him, 
making  at  the  time  considerable  impression  upon 
me,  I  have  thought  proper  to  record  it.  He  told 
us  that  several  officers  with  Peter  and  himself 
were  lodging  together;  that  one  night  Peter 
alarmed  them  all  with  loud  screams  to  such  a  de- 
gree that  on  first  awaking  he  supposed  the  enemy 
had  fallen  upon  their  army  with  bayonets.  Peter 
was  on  his  feet,  and  appeared  to  be  awake.  They 
spoke  to  him  repeatedly,  and  endeavored  to  ap- 
proach him,  but  every  advance  they  made  in- 
creased his  alarm.  Finally  he  recovered  himself 
and  became  composed,  and  for  several  days  after- 
wards, instead  of  satisfying  their  inquiries,  ap- 
peared to  be  sunk  in  distress  and  gloom.  He 
afterwards  told  them  he  considered  his  alarm  as 
a  warning  to  him,  and  that  his  fright  arose  from 
a  plain  representation  of  the  devil,  come  to  take 
him  off.  Peter  in  a  short  time  left  the  army^ ; 
and  (said  the  Major)  I  always  believed  that  his ! 


reformation  had  its  rise  from  that  circumstance. 

28th.  This  clay  we  dined  with  Robert  Monroe, 
factor  of  the  United  States  in  the  Indian  Depart- 
ment. At  his  table  we  met  our  friend  Charles 
Jewett,  the  revenue  officer  before  named,  Judge 
Henry  and  Lawyer  Sibley. 

29th.  This  day  we  dined  with  Frederick 
Bates,  at  his  lodgings.  He  is  descended  from 
Friends,  and  discovers  great  partiality  for  our 
company.  He  is  a  young  man  of  superior  under- 
standing, and  is  much  esteemed  in  Detroit.  I 
feel  and  fear  for  the  situation  of  this  young 
ban.  It  is  not  in  human  nature  to  support  good 
principles  unblemished,  when  left  alone  to  stem 
the  torrent  of  fashionable  and  fascinating  vices. 
Detroit  is  a  place  of  great  corruption. 

30th.  This   day  we  rode  nine    miles  up  the 

tiver  Detroit  to  take  a  view  of  Lake  St.  Clair. 
?his  lake  is  thirty  miles  in  length,  and  twenty 
biiles  in  width.  We  had  a  beautiful  prospect  of 
it,  from  a  commanding  situation.  I  ought  to 
lave  mentioned  that  bordering  the  river,  the 
Tfhole  distance  from  Detroit  to  the  lake,  the  land 
s  handsomely  improved.  The  houses  are  so 
[lear  each  other  that  the  margin  of  the  river 
looks  like  a  village.  These  farms  are  grants 
nade  by  the  French  government  nearly  a  cen- 
ury  ago.  They  uniformly  lie  in  parallelograms 
jontaining  about  one  hundred  acres.  Added  to 
iolerable  dwelHng  houses  are  the  handsomest 
ipple  orchards  I  ever  saw.     The  extraordinary 


heathfulaess  of  the  trees,  indicates  a  suitableneaj 
of  climate  or  soil,  or  both. 

The  pear  trees  also  are  very  large  and  handj 
some ;  but  their  cherry  and  peach  trees  do  no 
thrive  well,  the  climate  being  too  cold  for  themij 

In  this  little  excursion  we  were  accompanied 
by  Frederick  Bates,  and  returned  in  time  to  comij 
ply  with  an  invitation  we  had  received  to  din. 
with  Doctor  Davis.  Major  Pike,  and  severa; 
others,  dined  with  us. 

5th  month  1st.  ^e  this  day  dined  with  D? 
Wilkinson,  who  removed  from  the  lower  part  c^ 
the  State  of  Maryland.  Were  we  as  fond 
eating  and  drinking  as  the  people  of  Detroit  aj 
pear  to  be,  it  would  be  no  marvel  if  we  shoul 
forget  our  homes,  and  think  ourselves  well  enoug 
entertained  where  we  are ;  but  whilst  we  hav 
been  under  an  apparent  necessity  of  yielding  1 
the  invitations  we  have  received  during  (shall 
say?)  our  imprisonment  here,  we  know  we  ha-^ 
been  very  anxious  for  the  time  to  arrive,  in  whic 
we  may  embark  homewards,  and  hope  that  tit 
morrow  morning  the  vessel  for  which  we  ha\ 
been  waiting  will  sail. 

2d.  This  morning,  wind  and  weather  appea 
ing  to  permit,  we  were  informed  that  at  9  o'cloc 
the  vessel  would  sail.  We  accordingly  bac 
farewell  to  our  acquaintance,  and  went  on  boar 
the  United  States  brig  called  the  John  Adami 
commanded  by  Commodore  Brevoort.  Aboutt 
o'clock  sail  was  hoisted,  and  we  proceeded 


the  mouth  of  the  river  Detroit,  when  night  com- 
ing on,  and  the  wind  heing  unfavorable,  we 
;  anchored  near  the  British  shore,  and  opposite  to 
the  town  of  Maiden. 

3d.  Weighed  anchor.  Winds  light  and  op- 
posite ;  anchored  again  about  8  o'clock  in  the 
evening,  near  an  island  called  the  Middle  Sister. 

4th.  About  4  o'clock  this  morning  again 
weighed  anchor,  and  a  calm  coming  on  about  10 
o'clock,  we  anchored  again  near  Middle  Ba?s 
Island,  where  we  were  confined  the  remainder 
of  the  day.  In  the  afternoon  some  of  us  amused 
ourselves  with  fishing.  The  small  boat  was 
rowed  by  several  hands  around  the  island,  whilst 
we  cast  our  lines,  about  thirty  feet  in  length,  hav- 
ing hooks  baited  with  the  skin  of  pork  and 
covered  in  part  with  a  piece  of  red  cloth.  In  a 
short  time  we  caught  upwards  of  five  dozen 
black  bass,  justly  esteemed  an  excellent  fish,  and 
weighing  from  four  to  six  pounds.  The  lake 
water  is  so  clear,  that  fish  can  be  seen  from 
twelve  to  fifteen  feet  below  the  surfiice.  Many 
of  the  fish  we  caught,  we  saw  advancing  to  our 

5th.  At  4  o'clock  this  morning  again  hoisted 
sail.  Weather  windy,  attended  with  rain.  We 
had  not  proceeded  far  before  a  head  wind  opposed 
our  sailing,  and  we  cast  anchor  at  an  island 
called  Middle  Island.  At  4  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon a  heavy  rain  and  thunder  gust  coming  on, 
it  was  deemed  safest  to  return  back  a  few  leagues 

110  JOURNAL   OF   A   VISIT   TO 

to  a  harbor  called  Put-in-Bay,  where  we  lay  dur- 
ing  the  vAglit. 

6th.  This  morning  at  6  o'clock  we  again 
hoisted  sail ;  wind  and  weather  clear  and  pleasant. 
"\Ye  are  now,  9  o'cl  ck  at  night,  under  sail. 

7th.  Have  been  under  sail  last  night  and  this- 
day  until  evening,  when  we  cast  anchor  opposite 
to  Presqueile,  for  the  purpose  of  landing  a  part  of 
our  passengers, 

8th.  During  last  night  lay  at  Presqueile,  and 
this  morning  put  on  shore  the  passengers  bound 
for  that  place,  after  which,  the  wind  heading  us, 
we  lay  at  anchor  the  rest  of  the  day.  Presqueile 
is  a  town  on  the  American  side  of  the  lake,  con- 
taining about  forty  houses,  several  of  which  are 
stores.  A  small  garrison  of  the  United  States  is 
stationed  here. 

9th.  About  10  o'clock  last  night,  a  light  favor- 
able breeze  sprung  up,  which  encouraged  us  to 
proceed.  The  vessel  has  been  all  night  and  du- 
ring the  day  under  sail.  At  8  o'clock  in  the; 
evening  we  dropped  anchor,  within  four  miles  off 
Niagara  river.  Our  commander  says  that  the 
channel  leading  into  the  harbor,  is  rocky  and 
dangerous,  and  deems  it  imprudent  to  attempt 
an  entrance  at  night. 

It  is  a  pleasing  reflection,  that  we  are  so  near 
to  the  end  of  our  passage  over  the  lake;  and  we 
are  gladdened  with  the  hope,  that  we  shall  shortly 
prosecute  the  remainder  of  our  juurney  over 
terra  firma,  where   we  shall  not  be  subject  to 


the  impeditEents  of  opposing  winds,  and  be  freed 
from  the  dangers  of  storms.  Lake  Erie  is  a 
very  beautiful  body  of  water,  30w  miles  in 
length  and  generally  from  50  to  60  in  width. 
Much  of  the  distance  we  have  sailed  has  been  out 
of  sight  of  land.  The  water  of  the  lake  appears 
to  be  of  a  beautiful  deep  green  color,  but  when 
taken  up  in  a  glass  vessel,  is  to. be  admired  for 
its  transparency.  I  think  it  is,  without  exception, 
the  sweetest  water  I  ever  drank. 

10th.  At  4  o'clock  this  morning  our  anchor 
was  again  hoisted,  and  in  about  half  an  hour  we 
were  safely  moored  at  Fort  Erie.  This  is  a  small 
fort  on  the  Canadian  shore  of  the  lake,  garrison- 
ed by  the  British.  Immediately  on  our  arrival, 
we  set  out  on  foot  for  Buffalo,  distant  5  miles,  a 
town  situated  at  the  junction  of  Buffalo  Creek 
with  Lake  Erie,  and  near  the  commencement  of 
the  outlet  of  the  lake,  commonly  called  Niagara 
river.  The  object  of  this  excursion  was  to  ob- 
tain a  conveyance  across  the  country  to  the  near- 
est line  of  public  stages.  We  were  successful  in 
an  application  to  one  of  the  inhabitants,  who 
agreed  to  furnish  us  with  a  light  wagon,  to  be 
in  readiness  two  day's  hence.  Here  we  met  with 
Erasmus  Granger,  an  agent  of  the  United  States, 
in  the  Indian  Department.  We  had  conversa- 
tion wi:h  him  at  considerable  length  on  Indian 
affairs.  He  tells  us  that  many  individuals 
amongst  the  Indians  of  his  district,  (who  are  of 

112  JOURNAL   OP  A   VISIT   TO 

the  Six  jSTations,)  are  turning  their  attention  to 

About  mid-day  we  returned  in  a  small  boat  to 
our  vessel.  After  dining  on  board,  we  went  on 
shore  at  Fort  Erie,  and  joined  by  our  Commodore 
and  Lieutenant  Cox,  a  passenger  with  us  from 
Detroit,  we  engaged  a  light  wagon  to  return  with 
us  at  4  o'clook  to-morrow  morning,  to  view  the 
Falls  of  Niagara,  distant  about  eighteen  miles.  We 
extended  our  walk  for  a  considerable  distance 
along  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie;  it  is  here  composed 
of  a  solid  body  of  limestone,  beautifully  marbled. 

11th.  This  morning  we  sat  out  for  the  Falls 
of  Niagara ;  our  road  passed  near  the  margin  of 
Niagara  river,  from  the  lake  to  the  Falls,  a  dis- 
tance of  18  miles,  which  afforded  us  a  view 
both  of  the  river,  and  of  the  adjacent  improve- 
ments. The  land  is  generally  under  cultivation, 
and  is  tolerably  improved.  The  soil  appears 
rather  cold  and  stiff;  but  some  of  the  meadows 
are  nearly  equal  to  the  best  1  ever  saw ;  some  of 
the  farms  belong  to  members  of  our  society,  and; 
we  are  told  that  there  is  a  meeting  of  Friends 
not  far  distant  fron\  the  Falls.  Considerable 
emigrations  are  making  from  the  United  States, 
to  this  as  well  as  other  parts  of  Upper  Canada, 
owing  to  the  very  advantageous  terms  upom 
which  the  British  Government  dispose  of  the 
land,  being  scarcely  removed  from  a  gift. 

We  reached  a  Canadian  town  called  Chippewa,, 
to  breakfast,  after  which  we  walked  to  the  Falls,, 


a  distance  of  two  miles.  This  was  a  walk,  of 
wliicli  every  step  seemed  to  increase  curiosity 
and  surprise.  Oar  attention  was  soon  arrested 
by  a  cloud  which  hangs  perpetually  over  the 
Falls  for  the  height  of  600  feet^  arising  from  the 
dashing  of  the  waters. 

As  we  advanced  to  the  Falls  the  solid  earth 
and  rocks  shook,  or  seemed  to  shake,  under  our 
feet,  whilst  the  roar  of  the  waters  so  overpowered 
every  other  sound  that,  notwithstanding  we  were 
tete-a-tete,  it  was  necessary  to  raise  the  voico  to 
a  very  loud  key  in  order  to  be  heard.  Mean- 
while the  cloud  above  mentioned  issued  contin- 
ually in  what  we  sometimes  hear  called  a  Scotch 

There  is  a  common  saying,  "  Those  who  know 
no  danger,  fear  none."  This  was  our  case  on  re- 
turning to  the  extremity  of  an  overjutting  rock, 
called  Table  Rock,  opposite  to  the  great  cataract, 
in  order  to  gratify  our  curiosity,  in  a  peep  down 
the  precipice  which  is  more  than  150  feet  per- 
pendicular. In  passing  afterwards  a  short  dis- 
tance below  this  rock,  we  were  alarmed  with  the 
discovery,  that  the  place  on  which  we  had  stood 
was  but  a  thin  shell,  the  Falls  having  under- 
mined the  rock  for  many  feet.  Proceeding  a 
little  lower  down  the  Falls,  we  again  found  that 
our  second  stand  was  almost  as  baseless.  We 
however  supposed  that  the  danger  was  not  equal 
to  our  apprehensions,  as  the  names  of  great  num- 
bers of  visitors  were  cut  in  these  rocks,  near  their 


extremities.  I  shall  not  attempt  to  give  a  par- 
ticular description  of  the  Falls  of  Niagara,  which 
has  been  done  by  persons  who  have  visited  them^ 
for  the  especial  purpose  of  gratifying  the  curious. 
After  we  had  gratified  our  curiosity  in  a  view  of 
them  we  returned  to  Fort  Erie,  and  after 
night  were  rowed  in  a  small  boat  to  Buffalo  town, 
in  order  to  be  in  readiness  for  setting  out  home- 
ward in  the  morning. 

12th.  The  person  who  has  engaged  to  take  us 
on  our  journey  this  morning  has  disappointed  us. 
The  circumstance  is  a  trial,  as  we  have  become 
very  anxious  to  reach  our  homes.  Being  at  lei- 
sure we  accompanied  the  Indian  agent  in  a  ride, 
four  miles  above  Buffalo  Creek^  to  an  Indian  vil- 
lage of  the  Senecas,  one  of  the  tribes  of  the  Sis 

They  are  making  considerable  progress  in 
agriculture,  live  in  tolerable  log  houses,  and  have 
a  number  of  cattle,  horses  and  hogs.  We  saw 
many  of  them  at  work  ;  they  were  preparing  the 
ground  for  the  plough  by  rolling  logs,  taking  up 
stumps,  &c. 

We  also  saw  among  them  a  large  plough  at 
work,  drawn  by  three  yoke  of  oxen,  and  attended 
by  three  Indians.  They  all  appeared  to  be  very 
merry,  and  to  be  pleased  with  our  visit.  The 
land  upon  which  these  Indians  are  settled  is  of 
a  superior  quality.  We  saw  amongst  them  Red 
Jacket,  Farmers  Brother,  and  several  other  dis- 
tinguished Chiefs.     Many  of  these  Indians  wor- 


in  their  ears,  and  round  their  necks,  strung  upon 
strings,  several  descriptions  of  Lake  shells.  Here 
we  met  with  Saccarissa,  a  principal  chief  of  the 
Tuscarora  tribe.  He  has  come  for  the  purpose 
I  of  being  assisted  by  the  agent  in  vesting  fifteen 
thousand  dollars  in  the  purchase  of  land  from  the 
Holland  Land  Company.  They  have  greatly  de- 
clined hunting,  and  are  becoming  agriculturists. 
'  The  Tuscarora  Indians  removed  from  North  Caro- 
lina many  years  ago,  and  were  received  into  the 
then  Five  Nations,  or  Iroquois  Indians,  who  gave 
jthem  a  small  tract  of  country,  which  they  now 
I  think  wants  enlarging.  It  is  a  fact,  that  the 
iSix  Nations  have  stock  in  the  Bank  of  the 
United  States  to  the  amount  of  more  than  one 
hundred  thousand  dollars,  from  which  they  draw 
regular  dividends.  This  is  money  which  they 
received  some  years  ago  from  our  Government 
for  the  sale  of  their  lands. 

The  Chiefs  and  principal  people  took  the  advice 
of  General  Washington,  in  making  bank  stock  of 
their  money. 

13th.  This  morning  we  set  out  from  Buffalo 
in  a  farm  wagon  drawn  by  two  horses,  and  tra- 
I  veiled  32  miles  through  a  rough  and  inferior 

14th.  Proceeded  23  miles  and  reached  Bata- 
via,  a  new  town,  handsomely  situated.  We  have 
had  a  muddy,  disagreeable  road,  through  a  coun- 
try too  flat  to  be  desirable.  The  land  is  pretty 
rich,  and  very  heavily  timbered.     We  have  been 

116  A  JOURNAL   OF   A  VISIT   TO 

all  day  followed  by  millions  of  mosquitoes; 
crossed  a  handsome  stream  called  the  Tantawan- 
tae,  and  V7ere  told  at  the  Ford  that  a  little  dis- 
tance above  us  120  rattle  snakes  lay  dead.  These 
snakes  were  killed  by  some  fishermen  with  their 
spears,  the  warm  weather  having  brought  them 
out  of  their  dens.  People  are  making  settle-^ 
ments  here  very  rapidly. 

15th.  Travelled  33  miles,  and  lodged  at  War- 
ner's Tavern.  The  land  for  the  most  part  tol- 
erable. The  New  England  people  are  making 
many  handsome  settlements  here.  They  have 
built  fine  farm  houses,  planted  handsome  or- 
chards, and  emigration  is  increasing.  The  stone' 
is  mostly  limestone.  We  passed  for  several  miles 
over  a  tract  covered  with  limestone,  which  con- 
tained a  great  variety  of  curious  marine  shells. 
The  country  affords  many  fine  springs;  one 
which  we  passed  contains  water  sufficient  to  turn 
a  mill.  We  also  passed  through  a  large  Indian 
town,  near  the  Genesee  river^  and  to-day  crossed 
that  river,  where  its  width  is  about  100  feet. 

16th.  At  6  o'clock  this  morning  we  again 
proceeded ;  passed  near  Hemlock  lake,  and 
Honey  lake,  of  which  the  waters  empty  into  the 
Genesee  river.  The  face  of  the  country  is  gen- 
erally tolerable,  but  stony.  We  to-day  also  saw  | 
the  same  appearances  of  marine  shells  as  yesterday. 
About  mid-day  we  reached  the  town  of  Canan* 
daigua  ;  situated  upon  a  lake  of  that  name,  about 
20    miles   in   lengthy    and    from   one     to    two 


miles  in  width;  its  waters  empty  into  Lake 
;  Ontario.  Tbe  improvements  on  this  tract  are 
astonishingly  handsome  for  a  new  country,  par- 
ticularly through  a  settlement  called  Bloomfield. 
At  Canandaigua,  we  exchanged  a  rough  wagon, 
for  the  public  stage,  a  circumstance  additionally 
gratifying  to  us  from  the  hope  that  we  shall  now 
proceed  homewards  with  expedition.  At  2  o'clock 
set  out  in  the  stage,  and  reached  the  town  of 
Geneva  where  we  lodged.  This  is  a  handsome 
new  town  situated  upon  Seneca  lake,  a  body  of 
water  forty  miles  in  length,  and  from  three  to 
three  and  half  miles  in  width. 

17th.  Travelled  about  fifty  miles  and  lodged 
at  the  village  of  Onandagua.  On  our  way  we 
reached  a  handsome  wooden  bridge  one  mile  in 
length,  over  Cayuga  Lake. 

18th.  Travelled  fifty  miles  to  the  handsome 
town  of  Utica,  situated  on  the  Mohawk  river. 
Passed  near  Oneida  Lake,  and  through  a  large 
settlement  of  Indians  of  the  Oneida  tribe.  Their 
town  consists  of  about  seven  hundred  Indians. 
They  have  good  houses,  a  meeting  house,  barns 
and  orchards.  Their  land  is  under  cultivation, 
is  level,  and  appears  to  be  of  good  quality.  We 
saw  many  of  them  in  their  fields  preparing  for 
corn.  These  Indians  have  been  greatly  aided  in 
igriculture,  by  the  Friends  of  Philadelphia. 

19th.  This  morning  we  again  proceeded,  and 
at  night  lodged  at  a  small  village  called  George- 
town, making  a  distance  of  fifty  miles.    Our  road 

118  A   JOURNAL   OP   A   VISIT   TO 

led  us  the  whole  distance  along   the   Mohawk; 

The  Bottoms  along  this  river  are  called  the' 
German  Flats,  and  are  very  rich  and  handsome. 
They  were  settled  many  years  ago  by  the  Germans, . 
We  stopped  to  view  the  Falls  in  the  river,  where  : 
the  navigation  is  made  easy  by  locks ;  a  very 
romantic  place,  there  being  limestone  rock  oft 
enormous  size,  both  in  the  water  and  upon  the: 
hills.  In  proceeding  along  the  bottoms  of  thiS' 
river  there  are  many  marks  which  indicate  that' 
at  some  period  of  time  there  was  a  vast  body  oft' 
water  covering  these  Flats.  The  Flats  are  gen-- 
erally  from  half  a  mile  to  a  mile  in  width  ;  their 
margins  are  a  continuation  of  hills  on  each  side,, 
which  are  from  two  to  three  hundred  feet  in  i 
height;  the  surface  of  the  hills  show  stones  of 
great  size,  which  are  washed  into  all  shapes; 
added  to  this,  the  hills  discover  evident  appear- 
ances of  those  indentures  common  to  river  shores. 

20th.  Again  prosecuted  our  journey,  passing 
along  the  Mohawk  river  to  the  town  of  Schen-- 
ectady,  where  we  crossed  the  river,  and  in  the! 
evening  reached  the  town  of  Albany  upon  the 
North  river,  making  a  distance  of  forty  eight 
miles.  I  cannot  but  observe  here,  that  in  pro- 
ceeding along  the  Mohawk  river  to-day,  we  came 
to  the  end  of  those  high  chains  of  hills  mention- 
ed yesterday,  where  the  country  made  quite  a 
level  appearance ;  so  that  we  were  puzzled  to 
conjecture  what  became  of  the  earth  which  had: 


enclosed  so  great  a  body  of  water,  as  the  bills 
seem  to  declare  once  washed  their  summits.  I 
may  add,  in  humble  confession,  that  in  the  course 
ofour  long  journey,  I  have  had  frequent  occasions 
to  acknowledge,  in  a  view  of  those  extraordinary 
and  inexplicable  natural  curiosities,  which  have 
fallen  under  our  observation,  the  truth  of  that 
excellent  sentiment  of  a  religious  poet, 

"  Nature  is  wrapt  up, 
In  tenfold  night,  from  reason's  keenest  eye." — Young. 

Between  Schenectady  and  Albany  the  coun- 
try is  the  poorest  1  ever  saw.  The  surface  is  a 
body  of  sand,  producing  scarcely  a  tree.  Surely 
one  of  Churchill's  lines,  relative  to  a  part  of 
Scotland,  may  with  propriety  be  applied  to  this 

"  Here  half  starved  spiders  feed  on  half  starved  flies." 

21pt.  Having  concluded  to  go  by  water  from 
Albany  to  New  York,  at  3  o'clock  this  afternoon, 
we  set  sail,  and  at  six  o'clock  in  the  evening  of 
the  23d  reached  New  York,  a  distance  of  one 
hundred  and  sixty  miles. 

24th.  At  8  o'clock  this  morning,  we  took 
public  stage,  and  passing  through  the  city  of 
Philadelphia,  reached  Baltimore  on  First-day 
the  27th  of  5th  month,  1804.  Here  reader,  allow 
me  to  add  I  was  gladdened  with  the  favor  of  being 
permitted   safely  to   return   to   my   home,  and 


grateful  for  the  additional  blessing  of  finding  mj 
dear  wife  and  infant  children  all  well. 

We  were  absent  on  this  visit  three  months 
and  four  days,  and  travelled  about  two  thousanc: 


Whilst  engaged  in  taking  a  copy  of  the  pre- 
cedinjr  journal,  I  have  been  induced  to  examine 
the  manuscripts  left  by  the  late  George  Ellicott, 
of  Ellicott's  Mills,  the  companion  in  this  em- 
bassy of  the  author  of  the  narrative,  to  discover 
if  I  could  find  amongst  them  any  matter  concern- 
ing the  Indians,  and  of  the  care  manifested  by 
the  Friends  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  on 
their  behalf.  In  the  course  of  this  investigation 
a  variety  of  material  on  the  subjects  mentioned 
has  presented,  from  which  I  have  gleaned  some 
fragments,  which,  as  they  promise  to  be  inter- 
esting to  the  readers  of  the  present  day,  are 
herewith  presented. 

The  fir.*t  extracts  are  from  the  unpublished 
account  of  a  journey  to  Upper  Sandusky,  in  1799, 
performed  by  some  of  the  members  of  the  In- 
dian Committee  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting, 
and  written  by  George  Ellicott.  He  appears 
to  have  considered  that  any  narrative  of  the 
kind  should  be  preceded  by  information  con- 
cerning the  Indians,  as  they  were  in  former 
years ;  and  had  therefore  prepared  a  preface  to 
this  work,  compiled  from  the  writings  of  Jeffer- 
son, and  other  authorities,  from  which  the  fol- 
lowing is  taken :  T. 

122  ArPENDIX. 

"  When  the  first  effectual  settlement  was 
inade  in  Virginia,*  which  was  in  the  year  1607 
the  country  from  the  sea  coast  to  the  mountains, 
and  from  the  Potomac  to  the  most  southern 
waters  of  James  river,  was  occupied  by  upwards 
of  forty  different  tribes  of  Indians.  Of  these, 
the  Powhatans,  the  Mannahoacs,  and  Mona- 
cans,  were  the  most  powerful.  Those  between! 
the  falls  of  the  rivers  and  the  mountains  were( 
divided  into  two  confederacies  ;  the  tribes  in- 
habiting; the  head  waters  of  the  Potomac  and 
Rappahannock  being  attached  to  the  Manna- 
hoars,  and  those  on  the  upper  part  of  James 
river  to  the  Monacans.  But  the  Monacans  and 
their  friends  were  in  amity  with  the  Mannahoars 
and  their  friends,  and  waged  joint  and  perpetual 
war  against  the  Powhatans.  We  are  told  that 
the  Powhatans,  Mannahoacs,  and  Monacans. 
spoke  languages  so  radically  different,  that  in- 
terpreters were  necessary  when  they  transacted 
business.  Hence  we  may  conjecture  that  this 
was  not  the  case  between  all  the  tribes,  and  prob- 
ably that  each  spoke  the  language  of  the  natioDi 
to  which  it  was  attached,  which  is  known  tc 
have  been  the  case  in  many  particular  instances. 
Very  possibly  there  may  have  been  anciently 
three  different  stocks,  each  of  which  multiplying 
in  a  long  course  of  time,  had  separated  into  sc 
many  little  societies.    This  practice  results  from 

*See  Jefl'erson's  Notes  on  Viro-inia. 


the  circumstance  of  their  never  having  submitted 
themselves  to  any  hiws,  any  coercive  power,  or 
any  shadow  of  government.  Their  only  con- 
trasts are  their  manners,  and  that  moral  sense  of 
right  and  wrong  which,  like  the  sense  of  tasting 
and  feeling  in  every  man,  makes  a  part  of  his 
nature.  An  offence  against  these  is  punished 
by  contempt,  by  exclusion  from  society,  or,  where 
the  case  is  serious,  as  that  of  murder,  by  the  in- 
dividuals whom  it  concerns.  Imperfect  as  this  spe- 
cies of  coercion  may  seem,  crimes  are  very  rare 
amongst  them,  insomuch  that  were  it  made  a  ques- 
tion whether  no  law,  as  among  the  native  Ameri- 
cans, or  too  much  law,  asamongthe  civilized  Euro- 
peans, submits  men  to  the  greatest  evil ;  one  who 
has  seen  both  conditions  of  existence  would  pro- 
nounce it  to  be  the  last,  and  that  the  sheep  are 
happier  of  themselves,  than  under  the  care  of 
wolves.  It  will  be  said  that  great  societies  can- 
not exist  without  the  aid  of  government.  The 
savages  therefore  break  themselves  into  small 
ones.  The  territories  of  the  Powhatan  confede- 
racy south  of  the  Potomac,  comprehended  about 
8000  square  miles,  30  tribes,  and  2400  hundred 
warriors.  Captain  Smith  tells  us.  that  within 
60  miles  of  Jamestown  were  5000  people,  of 
whom  1500  were  warriors.  From  this  we  find 
the  proportion  of  their  warriors  to  their  whole 
inhabitants  was  as  3  to  10.  The  Powhatan 
confederacy  then  would  consist  of  about  8,000 
inhabitants,  which  was   one   for  every   square 


mile ;  being  about  the  twentieth  part  of  om 
present  population  in  the  same  territory,  and  thei 
hundredth  of  that  of  the  British  Islands.  The! 
numbers  of  some  of  them  are  stated  as  thejj 
were  in  the  year  1669,  when  an  attempt  was 
made  by  the  Assembly  to  enumerate  them.i 
Probably  the  enumeration  is  imperfect,  and  ini 
some  measure  conjectural,  and  that  a  furtheii 
search  into  the  records  would  furnish  many  more 
particulars.  What  would  be  the  melancholy 
sequel  of  their  history,  may,  however,  be 
augured  from  the  census  of  1669,  by  which  W€( 
discover  that  the  tribes  therein  mentioned  and 
enumerated,  were,  in  the  space  of  62  years  re- 
duced to  about  one-third  of  their  former  number 
Spirituous  liquors,  the  small  pox,  war,  and  am 
abridgment  of  territory,  to  a  people  who  lived 
principally  on  the  spontaneous  productions  oi 
nature,  had  committed  great  havoc  among  them. 
That  the  lauds  of  this  country  (Virginia,)  were 
taken  from  them  by  conquest,  is  not  so  general 
a  truth  as  is  supposed.  We  find  in  our  histo-i 
lies  and  records,  repeated  proofs  of  purchase! 
which  cover  a  considerable  part  of  the  lowen 
country,  and  many  more  would  doubtless  be 
found  on  further  search.  The  upper  country, 
we  know,  has  been  acquired  altogether  by  pur- 
chases made  in  the  mo>st  unexceptionable  form, 
westward  of  all  these  tribes,  beyond  the  moun- 
tains, and  extending  to  the  great  lakes  on  the 
Massawomics.  a  most  powerful  confederacy,  who 


harassed  unremittingly  the  Powhatans  and  Man- 
naboacs.  These  were  probably  the  ancestors 
of  the  tribes  known  at  present  by  the  name 
of  the  Six  Nations.  Very  little  can  now  be  dis- 
covered of  the  subsequent  history  of  these  tribes 
severally.  The  Chickalaminies  removed  about 
1661  to  Mattapony  river.  Their  chief,  with  one 
of  each  of  the  tribes  of  the  Pamunkies  and  Mat- 
tahonys,  attended  the  meeting  at  Albany,  Iq 
1685 ;  this  seems  to  be  the  last  chapter  in  their 
history.  The  Monacans  and  their  friends,  better 
known  latterly  by  the  name  of  Tuscaroras,  were 
probably  connected  with  the  Massawomics,  or 
Five  Nations;  for  though  we  are  told  that  their 
languages  were  so  different  that  the  interven- 
tion  of  interpreters  was  necessary  between  them, 
yet  we  also  learn  that  the  Erigas,  a  nation  for- 
merly inhabiting  the  Ohio,  were  of  the  same 
original  stock  with  the  Five  Nations,  and  that 
they  partook  also  of  the  Tuscarora  language. 
Their  dialects  might,  by  long  separation,  have 
become  so  unlike  as  to  be  unintelligible  to  each 
other.  We  know,  that  in  1712,  the  Five  Na- 
tions received  the  Tuscaroras  in  their  confede- 
racy, and  made  them  the  Sixth  Nation.  All  the 
nations  of  Indians  in  North  America,  lived  in 
the  hunter's  state,  and  depended  for  subsistence 
on  hunting,  fishing,  and  the  spontaneous  fruits 
of  the  earth,  and  a  kind  of  grain,  which  was 
planted  and  gathered  by  the  women,  and  is  now 
known  by  the  name  of  Indian  corn.  Long  po- 


tatoes,  pumpkins,  and  squashes  of  various  kinds  . 
were  also  found  in  use  among  them.  They  had 
no  flocks,  herds,  or  tamed  animals  of  any  kind,  j 
Their  government  a  kind  of  patriarchal  confede-l 
racy.  Every  town  or  family  has  a  chief,  who  is 
distinguished  by  a  particular  title,  and  whom  we 
commonly  call  "  Sachem."  The  several  towns 
or  families  that  compose  the  tribes  have  a  chief 
who  presides  over  it,  and  the  several  tribes  com- 
posing a  nation  have  a  chief  who  presides  over 
the  whole  nation.  Those  chiefs  are  generally 
men  advanced  in  age,  and  distinguished  for  their 
prudence  and  abilities  in  council ;  the  matters 
which  merely  regard  a  town  or  family,  are  settled 
by  the  chief  and  principal  men  of  the  town, 
those  which  regard  a  tribe,  such  as  the  appoint- 
ment of  head  warriors  or  captains,  and  settling 
differences  between  tribes  and  families,  are  reg- 
ulated at  a  meeting  of  the  chiefs  from  the  differ- 
ent towns  ;  and  those  which  regard  the  whole 
nation,  such  as  making  war,  concluding  peace,  or 
forming  alliances  with  the  neighboring  nations, 
are  deliberated  and  determined  in  a  national 
council,  composed  of  the  chiefs  of  the  tribes,  at- 
tended by  their  head  warriors,  and  a  number  of 
chiefs  from  the  towns,  who  are  his  counsellors. 
In  every  town,  there  is  a  council  house,  where 
the  chiefs  and  men  of  the  town  assemble  when 
occasion  requires,  and  consult  what  is  proper  to 
be  done.  Every  tribe  has  a  fixed  place  for  the 
chief  of  the  towns  to  meet  and  consult  on  the 


business  of  the  tribe.  And  in  every  nation, 
there  is  what  they  call  the  central  council  house, 
or  council  fire,  where  the  chiefs  of  the  several 
tribes,  with  the  principal  warriors,  convene  to 
consult  and  determine  on  their  national  affairs. 
When  any  matter  is  proposed  in  the  national 
council,  it  is  common  for  the  chiefs  of  the  seve- 
ral tribes  to  consult  thereon  apart  with  their 
counsellors,andwhen  they  have  agreed,  to  deliver 
the  opinion  of  the  tribe  at  the  national  council. 
And  as  their  government  seems  to  rest  wholly 
on  persuasion,  they  endeavor  by  mutual  conces- 
sions to  obtain  unanimity.  Such  is  the  govern- 
ment that  still  exists  among  the  Indian  nations 
bordering  on  the  United  States.  To  the  north- 
ward of  these,  there  was  another  powerful  nation, 
which  occupied  the  country  from  the  head  of 
the  Chesapeake  Bay,  up  to  the  Kittatinny 
mountain,  and  as  far  eastward  as  Connecticut 
river,  comprehending  that  part  of  New  York, 
which  lies  between  the  Highlands  and  the  ocean. 
All  the  State  of  New  Jersey,  that  part  of  Penn- 
sylvania which  is  watered  below  the  range  of 
Kittatinny  Mountains,  by  the  rivers  or  streams 
falling  into  the  Delaware,  and  the  County  of 
New  Castle,  in  the  State  of  Delaware  as  far  as 
Duck  Creek.  It  is  to  be  observed  that  nations 
of  Indians  distinguish  their  countries  one  from 
i  another,  by  natural  boundaries,  such  as  ranges 
of  mountains  or  streams  of  water.  But  as  the 
I  heads  of  rivers  frequently  interlock  or  approach 


near  to  each  other,  as  those  who  live  upon  a  stream , 
claim  the  country  watered  by  it,  they  often  en- 
croached on  each  other,  and  this  was  a  constant: 
source  of  war  between  the  different  nations. 

The  nation  occupying  the  tract  of  country 
last  described,  called  themselves  Lenapi,  and 
among  us  they  are  better  known  as  Delawares  ] 
this  nation  consisted  of  five  tribes,  who  all  spoke 
one  language ;  first,  the  Chihohocki,  who  dwelt 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  now  called  Dela- 
ware, a  name  given  to  it  by  Lord  De-la- War. 
who  put  into  it  on  his  passage  from  Virginiai 
but  which  was  called  by  the  Indians,  Chicbo 
hocki.  Second,  the  Wanami,  who  inhabited  th( 
country  called  New  Jersey,  from  the  Raritan  tc 
the  sea.  Third,  the  Munsey,  who  dwelt  on  th( 
upper  streams  of  the  Delaware,  from  the  Kitta 
tinny  mountains  down  to  the  Lehigh  or  westerr 
branch  of  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  rivers,  frou 
the  Kittatinny  down  to  the  Raritan.  Fifth,  th» 
Mahicon  or  Mahattan,  who  occupied  Staten  Isl 
and,  York  Island,  (which,  from  its  being  the  prin 
cipal  seat  of  their  residence,  was  formerly  callec 
Wahattan.)  Long  Island,  and  that  part  of  N.  Yorl 
and  Connecticut,  which  lies  between  Counecticu 
and  Hudson  rivers,  from  the  highlands,  which  i 
a  continuance  of  the  Kittatinny  ridge  down  t( 
the  sound.  The  nation  had  a  close  allianci 
with  the  Shawanese,  who  lived  on  the  Susque 
banna  and  to  the  westward  of  that  river,  as  far  a 
the  Alleghany  mountains,  and  carried  on  a  lon| 


war  with  another  powerful  nation  of  Indians, 
who  lived  to  the  north  of  them,  between  the 
Kittatinny  mountains,  or  highlands,  and  Lake 
Ontario,  and  who  call  themselves  Mingoes,  and 
are  called  by  the  French  writers,  Iroquois,  by 
the  English,  Five  Nations,  and  by  the  Indians  to 
the  southward,  with  whom  they  were  at  war, 
Massawomics ;  this  war  was  carrying  on  in  its 
greatest  fury,  when  Captain  Smith  first  arrived 
in  Virginia.  The  Mingo  warriors  had  pene- 
trated down  the  Susquehanna  to  the  mouth  of 
it.  The  Mingo  nation  consisted  of  tribes ; 
three,  who  are  called  the  Elder,  to  wit :  the 
Senecas,  who  live  to  the  west,  the  Mohawks,  to 
the  east,  and  the  Onondagoes  between  them; 
,  and  two,  who  are  called  the  younger  tribes, 
namely,  the  Cayugas  and  Oneidas.  All  these 
tribes  spoke  one  language,  and  were  thus  united 
in  a  close  confederacy,  and  occupied  that  tract 
of  country  from  the  last  end  of  Lake  Erie  to 
Lake  Champlain,  and  from  the  Kittatinny  and 
highlands  to  the  Lake  Ontario  and  the  river 
St.  Lawrence.  This  nation  turned  their  arms 
against  the  Lenapi,  and  as  this  war  was  long 
and  doubtful,  they,  in  the  course  of  it,  not  only 
exerted  their  whole  force,  but  put  in  practice 
every  measure  which  prudence  or  policy  could 
devise  to  bring  it  to  a  successful  issue.  For 
this  purpose  they  bent  their  course  down  the 
Susquehanna,  warring  with  the  Indians  in  their 
I  way,  and  having  penetrated  as  far  as  the  mouth 


of  it,  they,  by  the  terror  of  their  arms,  engagei 
a  nation,  known  by  the  name  of  the  Nanticockss 
Coneys  and  Lutetocs,  and  who  lived  betweer 
Chesapeake  and  Delaware  Bays,  and  bordering 
on  the  territory  of  Chihohocki,  to  enter  into  ar 
alliance  with  them;  they  also  formed  an  allianc 
with  the  Monahans,  and  stimulated  them  t( 
war  with  the  Lenapi,  and  their  confederates 
At  the  same  time  the  Mohawks  carried  on  i 
furious  war  down  the  Hudson  against  the  Mo 
hiccons  and  river  Indians,  and  compelled  then 
to  purchase  a  temporary  and  precarious  peace 
by  each  acknowledging  them  to  be  their  supe 
riors,  and  paying  an  annual  tribute. 

The  Lenapi  being  surrounded  with  enemie 
and  hard  pressed,  and  having  lost  many  of  thei 
warriorSj  were  compelled  at  last  to  sue  for  peace 
"which  was  granted  them  on  the  condition  tha 
they  should  put  themselves  under  the  protectioi 
of  the  Mingoes,  confine  themselves  to  raising 
corDj  hunting  for  the  subsistence  of  their  fami 
lies,  and  no  longer  have  the  power  of  makin< 

This  is  what  the  Indians  call  making  then 
women.  Under  this  condition  the  Lenapis  wer( 
when  William  Penn  first  arrived,  and  began  tb 
settlement  of  Pennsylvania  in  the  year  1682. 

In  Sept.  1700,  the  Indians  residing  on  th( 
Susquehanna,  granted  to  William  Penn  all  thei 
lauds  on  both  sides  of  the  river.  The  Indian; 
living  on  the  Susquehanna    and  Potomac  anc 

r  APPENDIX.  131 

the  Shawanese,  entered  into  articles  of  agreement 
with  Wm.  Penn,  by  which^  on  certain  conditions 
of  peaceable  and  friendly  behaviour,  they  were 
permitted  to  settle  about  the  tead  of  Potomac, 
in  Pennsylvania.  The  Conestoga  chiefs,  also, 
in  1701,  ratified  the  grant  of  the  Susquehanna 
Indians  made  the  preceding  year  of  1700.  Wm. 
Penn  obtained  from  the  Sachems  of  the  country 
a  confirmation  of  grants  made  by  former  Indians 
of  the  lands  from  Duck  Creek  to  the  mountains, 
and  from  the  Delaware  to  the  mountains,  and 
from  the  Delaware  to  the  Susquehanna;  in  this 
deed  the  Sachems  declared  that  they  had  seen 
land  heard  read  divers  prior  deeds  which  had 
tbeen  given  to  Wm.  Penn  by  former  chiefs. 
,  In  the  year  1672,  Gov.  Lovelace,  of  New 
jYork,  by  proclamation,  ordered  that  four  white 
(grains  or  beads,  and  three  black  ones  shall  pass 
for  a  penny  or  stiver ;  this  proclamation  was 
published  at  Albany,  Esopus,  Delaware,  Long 
[Island,  and  at  the  ports  adjacent;  and  that 
wampum  was  a  passing  medium  of  the  country 
at  that  time. 

A  treaty  was  entered  into  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Great  Miami,  between  the  United  States  and 
the  Shawanese  Nation,  in  the  year  1786^  by 
iwhich  the  United  States  do  allot  them  lands 
[with  their  territory  to  live  and  hunt  upon.  Be- 
iginning  at  the  south  line  of  the  lands  allotted 
to  the  Wyandots  and  Delawares,  at  the  place 
where  the  main  of  the  Great  Miami  and  of  the 


Ohio  intersects  said  line,  then  down  the  Miaai 
to  the  forks  of  that  river  below  the  old  for 
taken  by  the  French  in  1752,  thence  due  wes 
to  the  river  De-la-Panse ;  thence  down  that  rive 
to  the  Wabash,  beyond  which  line  none  of  th 
people  or  citizens  of  the  United  States  shal 
settle  or  disturb  the  Shawanese  in  their  settle 
ment  and  possessions;  and  the  Shawanese  d 
relinquish  to  the  United  States  all  title  the 
ever  had  to  lands,  east,  west,  and  south,  of  th 
east,  west,  and  south  of  lines  before  described 
Signed  by  G.  Clark,  Richard  Butler,  Saml.  H 
Parsons,  and  ei^ht  Indians,  and  witnessed  by 
number  of  Indians  and  whites.  The  India:, 
witnesses  were  of  the  Delaware  and  Wyando 
nations  ;  Isaac  Zane  (a  Wyandot),  and  the  Cram 
of  the  Wyandots  are  among  them." 

The  first  movement  made  by  the  Society  c 
Friends  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  for  th 
benefit  of  the  Indians,  after  the  conclusion  o 
the  Revolutionary  war,  was   commenced  abou 
one  year  subsequent  to  the  treaty  of  G-renville 
whereby  a  peace  had  been  concluded  betweei 
the  United  States  and  the  hostile  tribes,  northi 
west  of  the  river  Ohio.     For  many  years  thosi 
Indians  had  proved  themselves  to  be  the  for{ 
midable    enemies  of  the  white  emigrants  wh 
settled    near  them,    and  of   the  armies  of  th 
United  States,  sent  out  to  compel  them  to  subl 
mit  to  the  occupation  of  a  territory  which  the; 
continued  to  regard  as  their  own  property.  HaT 


ing  been  greatly  improved  in  warlike  discipline, 
and  in  the  use  of  European  firearms,  by  serving 
under  the  French  commanders  in  former  wars, 
they  adhered  to  any  pacific  agreements  no  longrr 
than  their  fears  or  their  interests  restrained 
them  ;  and  rested  in  the  determination  never  to 
abandon  their  lands  northwest  of  the  Ohio  river. 
They  had  defeated  General  Harmer,  with  the 
loss  of  the  greater  part  of  his  army,  on  the  banks 
of  the  St.  Joseph's  river  in  1791;  and  an  ex- 
pedition sent  against  them  shortly  after,  under 
the  command  of  General  St.  Clair,  was  com- 
pletely routed.  In  this  engagement  the  Little 
Turtle,*  so  often  alluded  to  in  the  foregoing 
pages,  was  the  commander-in-chief  of  the  Indian 
forces,  and  displayed  feelings  of  humanity  to- 
wards his  retreating  foes,  of  which  few  exam- 
ples have  been  furnished  in  the  history  of  Indian 
warfare,  and  which  reflects  honor  on  his  cha- 

On  beholding  the  white  soldiers  fleeing  before 
the  exasperated  Indians,  and  at  every  moment 
cut  down  by  the  weight  of  their  tomahawks,  his 
heart  revolted  at  the  sight,  and  ascending  an 
eminence,  he  gave  the  singular  cry,  which  com- 
manded his  men  to  cease  from  further  pursuit 
and  return  to  their  camps ;  he  also  sent  out  mes- 
sengers to  inform  them,  wherever  scattered, 
that   "  they  must  be  satisfied  with  the  carnagC; 

*  Michikiniqua,  was  the  Indian  name  of  this  chief. 


having  killed  enough. "     By  this  effort  on  hisi 
part  many  lives  were  spared. 

After  this  defeat,  so  unlooked  for  by  the  i 
United  States,  General  Wayne,  who  had  sue-' 
ceeded  General  St.  Clair,  arrived  with  his  army 
upon  the  location  where  that  officer  had  been 
defeated,  in  the  9th  month,  (Sept.)  1793,  and 
immediately  built  Fort  Wayne.  The  next  year 
he  brought  the  Indians  to  a  decisive  engage- 
ment in  the  vicinity,  in  which  they  were  over- 
thrown with  great  slaughter.  This  humiliation 
lessened  their  high  estimate  of  their  own  strength 
and  disposed  them  to  peace,  and  a  treaty  was 
concluded  between  them  and  General  Wayne, 
who  acted  as  a  commissioner  of  the  United 
States,  at  Grenville,  (1794),  by  which  the  tribes 
northwest  of  the  river  Ohio,  gave  up  the  lands 
so  long  the  object  of  contention,  and  accepting 
a  reservation  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Lakes, 
came  under  the  protection  of  the  United  States, 
upon  terms  at  that  time  considered  mutually 
satisfactory  and  beneficial. 

The  Little  Turtle,  who  appears  lo  have  had  a 
just  idea  of  the  importance  of  the  lands  about 
to  be  ceded  to  our  government,  remained  for  a 
long  time  inflexible,  resolved  upon  procuring 
more  favorable  conditions.  He  was  deeply  at- 
tached to  the  country  which  liad  been  his  birth- 
place, and  in  common  with  all  his  brethren 
considered  it  belonged  to  the  Indians  by  right 
of  possession  from  the  Great  Spirit^  who,  they 


believed  J  after  he  had  made  the  earth,  sun, 
moon  and  stars,  bad  placed  the  red  man  on  this 
continent;  and  bestowed  it  upon  him  and  his 
children.  He  knew  also,  that  the  whole  region 
around  was  made  dear  to  them  by  every  cher- 
ished remembrance ;  their  recollections  of  the 
happy  abode  of  the  red  people  therein  for  many 
generations  before  the  coming  of  the  white  men 
to  settle  amongst  them;  as  connected  also  with 
the  sports  and  pastimes  of  their  youth,  and  with 
the  enjoyments  of  their  more  manly  pursuits  in 
maturer  years,  and  moreover  as  containing  the 
graves  and  other  monuments  of  their  fathers. 
These  recollections  were  all  quickened  and  in- 
creased in  importance  by  the  knowledge  that,  in 
relinquishing  the  possession  of  this  fine  territory, 
they  yielded  up  forests  filled  with  herds  of  deer, 
and  other  game  which,  by  the  addition  of  the 
fruits  of  their  grounds,  rich  and  fertile  almost 
without  precedent,  gave  them,  even  with  their 
rude  mode  of  tillage,  an  ample  supply  for  their 
simple  wants.  He  seemed  also  to  be  filled  with 
apprehension,  lest  when  settled  within  the  con- 
fined boundaries,  which  were  to  be  theirs  by  the 
conditions  of  the  treaty,  that  his  countrymen 
would  be  too  slow  in  adopting  the  habits  of  civil- 
ized life;  and  as  the  supply  of  wild  animals  must 
soon  be  exhausted,  would  sufi"er  many  privations 
in  consequence  of  the  change.  As  such  were 
his  feelings,  can  any  thoughtful  person  be  as- 
tonished at  his  resolutions  ? 


CoQvioced  at  last,  that  no  alternative  awaited 
him^  he  consented  to  sign  the  compact,  remark- 
ing to  the  officers  present^  as  he  affixed  his  sig- 
nature, "  I  have  been  the  last  to  consent  to  this 
agreement ;  I  will  be  the  last  to  break  it."  He 
remained  true  to  his  affirmation. 

The  following  extracts  are  selected  from  a 
brief  account  of  the  Indian  Committee  of  Balti- 
more Yearly  Meeting,  from  its  appointment  in 
1795  to  the  completion  of  the  journey  to  Fort 
Wayne,  by  Gr.  T.  Hopkins  and  George  Ellicott, 
in  1804. 

The  Yearly  Meeting  of  Baltimore,  and,  also, 
that  of  Philadelphia,  appear  to  have  directed 
their  attention  almost  simultaneously  to  an  efifort 
for  the  improvement  of  the  Indians,  and  a  com- 
mittee was  accordingly  appointed  in  each  of 
these  Yearly  Meetings,  in  the  autumn  of  1795, 
to  take  the  subject  under  care, 

"  In  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting,  held  by  ad- 
journments, from  the  12th  day  of  the  Tenth 
month  to  the  16th  of  the  same,  inclusive,  1795, 
Evan  Thomas  being  clerk,  and  John  Cox  assist- 
ant clerk,  the  exercise  with  regard  to  the  In- 
dians commenced  by  a  weighty  concern  being 
opened,  concerning  the  difficulties  and  distress 
to  which  the  Indian  natives  of  this  land  are  sub- 
ject; and  many  observations  were  made  on  the 
kindness  of  their  ancestors  to  the  white  people, 
in  the  early  settlement  of  this  country,  exciting 
a  deep  consideration  and  enquiry,  whether  under 


the  influence  of  that  exalted  benevolence  and 
good  will  to  men,  (which  our  holy  profession  re- 
quires;)  anything  remains  for  us  to  do  to  pro- 
mote their  welfare,  their  religious  instruction, 
knowledge  of  agriculture,  and  the  useful  me- 
chanic arts.  A  solemnity  and  uniting  calm 
prevailing  over  the  meeting,  the  further  consid- 
eration of  the  subject  was  referred  to  another 
meeting,  when  the  condition  of  the  distressed 
Indian  natives  being  again  revived,  the  senti- 
ments of  many  brethren  expressed,  and  a  pre- 
vailing sympathy  felt,  it  appears  to  be  the  united 
sense  of  this  meeting,  that  it  be  recommended 
to  our  Quarterly  and  Monthly  Meetings  to  take 
this  concern  into  serious  consideration,  and  open 
subscriptions  among  our  members  for  their  relief 
and  the  encouragement  of  school  education^  hus- 
bandr}',  and  the  mechanic  arts,  amongst  that 
people.  As  it  appears  their  situation  demands 
immediate  attention,  we  hope  a  spirit  of  liber- 
ality will  be  manifested;^  and  those  who  find 

"  This  call  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  upon 
its  members  "was  promptly  met.  But  the  sums  of 
money,  thus  collected,  do  not  appear  to  have  been 
often  used  to  defray  the  travelling  expenses  of  the 
Friends  appointed  by  the  Indian  Committee  to  visit 
the  tribes  Xorth-west  of  the  river  Ohio.  Those  who 
accepted  such  commissions  prepared  their  own  out- 
fit and  defrayed  their  own  charges,  except  in  one, 
two,  or  at  the  most,  three  instances,  where  such  an 
expenditure  would  have  been  oppressive  to  the  indi- 
viduals concerned,  on  which  occasions  the  necessary 
funds  were  supplied  by  the  committee. 


freedom  to  subscribe,  are  desired  to  put  their 
contributions  into  the  hands  of  the  following 
Friends,  who  are  appointed  to  receive  and 
apply  the  same,  in  such  manner  as  will  best 
answer  the  benevolent  designs  of  this  meeting, 
carefully  guarding  against  giving  offence  to  gov- 
ernment, viz  : — 

John  Wilson,  Joseph  Bond, 

John  M'Kim,  Joseph  Beeson, 

John  Branen,  John  Butcher, 

Evan  Thomas,  Benjamin  Walker, 

Allan  Farquhar,  Israel  Janney, 

John  Love,  David  Branen, 

Caleb  Kirk,  Gouldsmith  Chaudlee, 

Jonathan  Wright,  of  Moses  Dillon, 

Monallen,  Elias  Ellicott, 

Thomas  Matthews,  Nathan  Heald, 

David  Greane." 

The  Friends  above  named  composed  the  first 
Committee  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  for  In- 
dian Affairs,  and  their  appointment  was  wit- 
nessed by  "  John  Wigam,  a  minister  from  North 
Britain,  who  attended  with  a  certificate  from 
Aberdeen  Monthly  Meeting,  dated  17th  of 
Fourth  month,  1794,  and  endorsed  by  the  Half- 
year's  Meeting,  held  at  Edinburgh,  28th  of 
same  month ;  and,  also,  a  certificate  from  the 
Yearly  Meeting  of  Ministers  and  Elders,  held  in 
London,  dated  17th  of  Fifth  month^  1794,  all 


expressive  of  the  unity  of  the  Friends  of  those 
meetings  in  his  visit  to  these  parts." 

Deborah  Darby  and  Rebecca  Young  also 
produced  certificates  to  the  Yearly  Meeting  at 
the  same  time,  both  from  the  **  Monthly  Meet- 
ing held  at  Coalbrookdale,  in  Shropshire,  En- 
gland, dated  the  20th  of  Third  month,  1793, 
endorsed  by  the  Yearly  Meeting  for  Wales,  held 
at  Hermarthan,  the  25th  of  Fourth  month,  1793. 
Also  certificates  from  the  Yearly  Meeting  of 
Ministers  and  Elders,  held  in  London,  the  18th 
20th,  23d  and  29th  of  Fifth  month,  1793." 
The  company  and  labors  of  love  of  these 
Friends  from  Great  Britain,  are  acknowledged 
to  have  been  satisfactory  to  Baltimore  Yearly 
Meeting.  *  ^  They  were  partakers  with  them  in 
their  exercises  for  the  advancement  of  truth 
and  righteousness,  and  sympathized  in  all  their 

The  first  important  meeting  of  the  Indian 
Committee  was  held  at  Pipe  creek,  (where  the 
Meeting  for  Sufferings  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meet- 
ing then  frequently  convened,)  the  22d  of  the 
Fifth  month,  1796;  ten  members  being  present. 
The  meeting  was  opened  by  the  expression  of  a 

*  The  records  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  for  1796 
contain  minutes,  almost  precisely  similar"  to  those 
given  above,  of  the  appointment  of  the  Indian  Com- 
mittee, and  the  presence  of  the  Friends  from  Great 
Britain  at  the  time. 


desire,  by  one  of  the  committee,  that  every  mem- 
ber of  the  Society  of  Friends  would  be  willing 
to  give  sanction  to  the  benevolent  experiment 
recommended  by  the  Yearly  Meeting ;  a  senti- 
ment which  was  united  with  by  all  present. 
These  good  resolutions  were  much  strengthened 
and  encouraged  by  a  letter  they  then  opened 
and  read,  from  the  Indian  Committee  of  Philadel- 
phia, dated  Third  month  24th,  1796,  *  which 
set  forth  "  that  they  had  addressed  their  Quar- 
terly and  Monthly  Meetings,  and,  also,  Particular 
Meetings,  on  the  sufferings  of  the  Indians,  and 
had  sent  them,  with  the  minutes  from  PhiladeW 
phia  Yearly  Meetings,  extracts  from  diversi 
speeches  and  letters  from  Indian  Chiefs ;  all 
tending  to  spread  useful  information,  and  drav 
the  attention  of  our  members  to  the  situatioi 
of  these  distressed  people;"  some  of  them  had 
also  visited  the  President  of  the  United  Statesji 
George  Washington,  (at  the  time  in  Philadel-I 
phia,)  and  acquainted  him  with  the  views  of  our 
religious  Society,  on  behalf  of  the  Indians.  They 
had,  also,  conferred  with  the  Secretary  of  State, 
who  had  manifested  a  desire  to  co-operate  with 
the  Friends,  in  promoting  the  interests  of  the  In- 
dians.    They  had  addressed  a  circular  letter  '"'to 

*  Rebecca  Jones,  in  a  letter  to  a  son  of  Catherine 
Phillips,  of  England,  dated  in  the  autumn  of  1795. 
mentions  the  appointment  of-the  Philadelphia  Com- 
mittee for  Indian  Affairs. 


the  different  tribes  of  those  called  the  Six  Na- 
tions," representing  a  desire  "  to  assist  them  in 
attaining  a  more  comfortable,  quiet,  and  peacea- 
ble mode  of  life,"  and  expressed  an  opinion 
that  the  distresses  and  difficulties  the  Indians 
labor  under  may,  in  a  great  degree,  be  attributed 
to  their  propensity  to  the  use  of  spirituous 
liquors,  introduced  among  them  by  traders  and 
evil-minded  persons,  and  suggested  a  plan  by 
which  the  trade  in  liquors  might  be  checked  in 
part,  if  not  fully.  They  conclude : — "  As,  in 
our  attention  to  this  concern,  anything  shall 
arise  that  may  be  deemed  useful  and  proper  to 
communicate,  we  mean  to  impart  the  same,  de- 
siring like  care  may  rest  with  you,  that  what 
may  occur  useful  herein  may  be  intimated  to 
your  loving  friends." 

Addressed    to   John    Brown,    Elias    Ellicott, 
John  M'Kim,  and  others,  Members  of  the  Com- 
mittee of  the  Yearly  Meeting  of  Maryland,  on 
the  Indian  Concern,  &c. 
Signed  by 

John  Parrisb,  William  Savery, 

Henry  Drinker,  John  Hunt, 

Benjamin  Sweet,  John  Pierce, 

Warner  Mifflin,  John  Biddle, 

Thomas  Harrison,  Joseph  SaEsom, 

John  Elliott. 

Any  communication  to  the  Philadelphia  Com- 
mittee on  Indian  Concerns,  was  to  be  addressed 


to  Thomas  Wistar,  Clerk  of  the  Committee,  who 
had  authority  to  call  a  meeting  of  their  Sub- 
Committee  of  fifteen  Friends,  on  '' necessary 

The  committee  remained  two  days  in  session, 
at  Pipe  Creek,  deliberated  on  their  benevolent; 
purposes,  addressed  a  reply  to  their  Friends, 
John  Parrish  and  others,  in  Philadelphia, 
through  Thorn  is  Wistar,  and  *' appointed  John 
Brown,  Jonathan  W^right, Israel  Janney,  3IoseS' 
Dillon,  and  Joseph  Bond,  to  pay  a  visit  to  the 
Delawares,  Sbawanese,  Wyandots,  and  othei 
nations  northwest  of  the  river  Ohio,  or  to  such 
parts  of  them  as  they  shall  find  freedom ;  appro- 
bation of  the  government  being  first  obtained." 
They  also  addressed  a  letter  to  the  Indians  tc 
whom  they  were  about  to  send  a  mission,  in 
which  they  informed  them  that  the  Quakers. 
at  their  general  religious  council  in  Philadel- 
phia, having  agreed  to  take  some  of  the  ''  Sis 
Xations,  who  live  in  the  North,  by  the  hand, 
our  religious  council  held  last  fall  in  Baltimore 
were  also  concerned  for  your  welfare  who  residti 
in  the  West/' 

"They  have  tnld  us  to  endeavor  to  speak 
with  you  and  get  acquainted  with  your  nations 
For  this  purpose  we  have  sent  our  beloved  bro- 
thers, John  Brown,  Israel  Janney,  Jonathan 
Wright,  Moses  Dillon,  and  Joseph  Bond,  tc 
5-hake  hands  with  you  in  your  tent,  and  to  ask 
if  you  wish  to  be  instructed   how  to  raise  corm 


and  wheat  for  bread,  on  your  own  land,  as  we  do  ; 
and  to  get  meat  at  home  without  hunting,  and 
to  weave  blankets  and  clothes  for  yourselves, 
your  wives,  and  your  children ;  and  also  to  en- 
quire whether  you  wish  to  have  your  children 
taught  to  read  and  write,  and  to  do  such  other 
things  as  will  make  you  live  comfortably  under 
the  shade  of  the  great  tree  of  peace.  We  wish  jou 
to  speak  to  us  freely  with  the  mouths  of  your  na- 
tions, and  if  it  is  agreeable  to  you  we  will  talk  to 
you  again.     Farewell. 

''  Signed  on  behalf  of  our  aforesaid  Rehgious 
Council  of  the  people  called  Quakers,  the  23d 
of  5th  month,  1796,  by 

Allen  Farquhar, 
Benjamin   Walker, 
David  Brown, 
Elias  Ellicott, 
Caleb  Kirk." 

Previous  to  the  departure  of  this  delegation  to 
the  Indian  settlements,  they  were  furnished 
with  permission  for  the  purpose  "  by  the 
United  States  government,  expressed  in  two  let- 
ters from  the  Secretary  of  State,  and  addressed 
to  Governor  St.  Clair,  and  to  General  Wayne, 
being  as   follows. 

Department  of  State, 
Philadelphia,  May  31s^,  1796. 

''Sir, — Mr.  Henry  Drinker  of  this  city,  whose 
respectable    standing   among     the   Society     of 



Friend?,  and  as  our  fellow  citizen,  you  well  know, 
has  informed  me,  that  a  delegation  of  five  pru- 
dent, judicious  men,  of  religious  character,  have 
been  deputed  by  their  brethren  of  that  Society 
in  Maryland  to  visit  the  Indian  Tribes  N.  West 
of  the  river  Ohio,  for  the  purpose  of  learning.' 
their  situation  and  disposition,  and  thence  tO; 
judge  of  the  practicability  of  introducing  among' 
them  the  simplest  and  most  useful  arts  of  civil 
life.  The  result  of  their  inquiries  and  observa-j 
tions  they  are  to  report  on  their  return  to  the 

The  approbation  of  the   President  has  beem 
asked  and  obtained.     The  object  of  this  letter: 
is  to  communicate  the  same  to  you,  and  request! 
of  you  to  afford  the  delegation  all  the  protection 
and  countenance  to  which  their  respectable  char- 
acters  and    philanthropic   views    entitle  them. 
Most  of  the  attempts  at  civilizing  the  Indians, 
which  I  have  heard  of,  have  been  preposterous. 
We  have  aimed  at  teaching  them  religion  and 
the  sciences,  before  we   have  taught  them  the 
simple  and  essential  labors  of  civil  life. 

I  am  very  respectfully  your  most  obedient 
servant,  Tim.  Pickering." 

The  delegation  proceeded  to  the  Indian  coun- 
try, but  found  the  chiefs,  the  hunters  and  war- 
riors of  the  tribes  with  whom  they  desired  toi 
confer,  much  dispersed  over  the  country,  engaged! 
in  their  various  pursuits,  and  consequently  were 



unable  to  hold  any  communication. with  them 
collectively ;  under  this  disappointment  they 
made  their  report  to  the  Committee  on  Indian 

During  the  next  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting, 
the  Indian  Committee  suggested,  (in  a  report 
they  made  to  that  body,  in  which  they  alluded 
to  the  inability  of  their  late  mission  to  obtain  an 
interview  with  the  tribes  whose  improvement 
and  preservation  they  desired,)  ^'  that  if  a  notice 
of  the  intention  of  Friends  was  intimated  to  the 
Indians  in  a  suitable  manner,  and  they  were  re- 
quested to  fix  a  time  and  place  of  meeting,  a 
satisfactory  conference  might  be  obtained  ;  as 
the  disposition  of  such  of  them  as  they  had  had 
an  opportunity  of  conversing  with  appeared  fa- 

The  report  was  dated  10th  mo.  13th,  1796, 
and  signed  by  Evan  Thomas, 

John  Wilson. 

On  the  15th  of  10th  month,  1796,  the  Com- 
mittee on  Indian  Affairs  was  officially  informed 
that  the  Yearly  Meeting  had  made  an  addition 
to  that  Committee,  by  the  appointment  of  Reese 
Cadwallader,  Thomas  Farquhar,  Joel  Wright, 
James  Mendenhall,  George  Ellicott,  and  James 

At  the  next  meeting  Joel  Wright    was  ap- 
pointed Clerk  of   the  Committee,  and  no  busi- 
ness presenting,  adjourned. 


At  a  meeting  of  the  Indian  Committee,  heldi 
at  Pipe  Creek  the  20th  of  5th  month,  1797,  im- 
mediately after  the  conclusion  of  the  Meeting 
for  Sufferings,  which  convened  at  that  place,  a  i 
very  serious  consideration  of  the  important 
charge  entrusted  to  them  impressed  the  minds 
of  the  Friends  in  attendance,  and  "  Joel  Wright 
expressed  a  willingness,  if  provided  with  suita- 
ble company  to  undertake  a  journey  to  the  N. 
West  of  the  river  Ohio,  for  the  purpose  of  fur- 
nishing the  Committee  with  more  full  informa- 
tion respecting  the  situation  and  disposition  of 
the  Indians."  The  Committee  approved  his 
proposal,  and  he  was  left  at  liberty  to  make  the 

The  Committee  on  Indian  Affairs  met  again 
on  the  7th  of  Tenth  month,  1797,  and  received 
a  most  interesting  account  from  Joel  Wright 
and  the  companions  of  his  journey,  —  Reese  Cad- 
wallader  and  David  Greaves, — of  their  visit  to 
the  Indian  country,  dated  the  15th  of  Ninth 
month,  1797,  from  which  communication  the 
following  extract  was  copied  :* 

''In  the  course  of  this  journey,  after  having 
visited  a  number  of  Indian  hunting  camps  and 
several  of  their  towns,  we  had  a  large   oppor- 

^  Oa  a  receat  examination  of  the  Records  of  the 
Indian  Committee  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting,  in 
order  to  test  the  correctness  of  the  abridgment  now 
published,  the  incidents,  dates  and  names  were  found 
to  be  exactly  similar. 


tunity  to  discover  their  present  situation  ;  often 
exposed  to  the  inclemency  of  the  seasons,  with 
a  very  precarious  and  frequently  a  scanty  sup- 
ply of  food  and  clothing.  From  the  knowledge 
we  have  obtained  of  the  extensive  and  valuable 
country  they  have  lately  given  up  to  the  United 
States,  and  of  the  narrow  strip  of  land  yet  re- 
served for  their  own  use,  between  the  line  of 
the  American  garrisons  and  from  Detroit  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Kentucky  river,  we  were  im- 
pressed with  a  belief  that  the  Wyandots,  Shawa- 
nese  and  Delawares  who  dwell  there,  will,  unless 
they  alter  their  present  mode  of  living,  be  re- 
duced, in  a  few  years,  from  the  scarcity  of  game, 
to  a  state  of  extreme  want  and  distress." 

At  the  upper  end  of  Sandusky  Town,  they 
held  a  council  with  two  of  the  principal  chiefs 
of  the  Wyandot  nation  and  several  of  their 
former  warriors  and  young  men,  when  Isaac 
Zane  interpreted  to  them  the  address  prepared 
by  the  Friends  of  Baltimore  Yearly  JMeeting. 
He  also  interpreted  the  reply  of  one  of  the 
Chiefs,  which  was  brief  but  friendly. 

They  found  that  "  the  Wyandots  were  the 
principal  nation  ;  that  everything  of  importance 
must  be  transacted  in  their  council,;  they  can 
transact  business  by  themselves,  but  the  Dela- 
wares and  Shawanese  have  to  apply  to  them  when 
any  business  of  consequence  is  laid  before  their 

This  reply  of  the  IndianS;  was  presented  to 


Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  of  Friends  with  the 
Report  of  the  Committee  on  Indian  Concerns, 
and  was  published  in  the  newspapers  of  the  day. 
Afterwards,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Indian  Com- 
mittee in  Baltimore,  the  16th  of  Eighth  month, 
1798,  they  received  a  letter  from  John  Hecke- 
welder,  agent  for  the  Moravian  Society,  repre- 
senting the  distressed  condition  of  the  Indians 
under  his  care,  in  consequence  of  their  having 
been  driven  from  their  settlement  on  the  Mus- 
kingum river,  during  the  late  war,  and  were 
now  returning  thereto  in  want  of  provisions  andi 
necessary  implements  of  husbandry  ;  whereupon: 
Reese  Cadwallader,  Nathan  Heald  and  Joel; 
Wright  were  appointed  "  to  inspect  into  the 
circumstances  of  those  Indians,  with  liberty,  if 
they  shall  believe  it  necessary,  to  afford  themj 
some  assistance  by  furnishing  them  with  such 
articles  as  they  may  be  in  immediate  want  of.'' 
This  delegation  reported  to  the  Indian  Commit- 
tee, at  a  meeting  held  in  Baltimore  the  2d  oi 
Fourth  month,  1799,  in  a  communication  bear-, 
ing  date,  Redstone,  Twelfth  month  21st,  1798. 
an°d  signed  by  Reese  Cadwallader  and  Joe]> 
Wright.  They  had  proceeded  on  their  mission 
as  fa°r  as  Georgetown  on  the  Ohio,  sixty-five, 
miles  from  Redstone,  but  ascertaining  that  Johr 
Heckewelder  had  lately  gone  to  Bethlehem,  anC 
had  procured  the  Indians  under  his  charge  £ 
supply  of  provisions  for  the  winter  before  hij 
departure,  and  that  the  principal  Indians  of  tht 


settlement  were  then  dispersed,  and  at  their 
hunting  camps  (no  date  given),  thej  turned 
their  attention  to  eight  or  ten  families  of  other 
Indians  of  the  Tuscaroras,  who  were  very  de- 
sirous of  being  instructed  in  farming,  but  were 
without  agricultural  implements,  and  were  also 
in  want  of  provisions  ;  these  they  would  have 
visited,  in  order  to  meet  their  ''active  men,'^ 
who  had  invited  them  to  an  interview,  but  were 
prevented  from  doing  so  by  the  situation  of  the 
Ohio  river,  which  was  in  flood,  with  vast  masses 
of  ice  passing  down  it.  They,  however,  left  a 
supply  for  their  relief  with  Thomas  Smith,  who 
lived  near  Georgetown,  and  also  engaged  a  black- 
smith to  make  them  some  farming  utensils. 
Reese  Cadwallader  and  Joel  Wright,  from  all 
they  had  heard  and  seen  on  their  journey,  be- 
lieved it  would  be  right  for  the  Indian  Com- 
mittee to  send  a  deputation  to  the  General 
Council  of  the  Indians  to  be  held  the  next 

The  Committee  on  Indian  Concerns  met  again 
on  the  23d  of  Third  month,  1799,  being  a  spe- 
cial meeting;  when  a  letter  from  Thomas  Wistar, 
and  a  speech  from  the  principal  chief  of  the  Wyan- 
dot nation,  called  Tarhie  (the  Crane),  was  read« 
This  chief,  in  his  speech,  which  was  delivered  at 
Detroit  on  behalf  of  the  whole  Wyandot  nation, 
on  the  8th  day  of  September,  1798,  reminds 
the  Friends  that  they  once  met  the  Indians  at 
a  certain  place  "  where  a  great  many  good  things 



were  said  and  much  friendship  professed  between 
them ;  that  they  had  no  place  of  security  foi 
their  speeches,  as  their  white  brethren  had,  and! 
that  their  belts  of  wampum  were  their  only  re- 
cords;" and  adds,  "  but,  if  you  examine  youi 
books  and  papers,  you  will  there  find  written  all 
that  passed  between  your  forefathers  and  ours. 
He  speaks  further  of  a  "  belt  of  wampum  given' 
to  us  by  your  forefathers,  with  a  piece  of  parch- 
ment affixed  thereto ;  when  you  see  the  belt  oi 
wampum  and  read  the  writing  on  the  parch- 
ment, you  no  doubt  will  then  perfectly  know  us, 
and  will  consider  us  as  brethren  united  by  a  chain! 
of  friendship  which  can  never  be  broken  whilst 
memory  lasts."  He  informed  the  Friends  that 
he  understood  some  of  them  wished  to  pay  his 
people  a  visit,  and  adds,  "  We  are  much  pleased 
to  hear  that  you  still  hold  us  in  remembrance. 

The  letter  of  Thomas  Wistar,*  clerk  of  the 
Committee  on  Indian  Concerns  in  Philadelphia, 
was  dcited  27th  of  Second  month,  1799,  and 
states  that  "  the  Miami  nation  had  made  a  re- 
quest of  their  Committee  for  some  Friends  tc 
settle  amongst  them,  and  a  speech  from  the 
Delawares  left  no  doubt  that  a  similar   request 

*  Notwithstanding  friendly  relations  continued  evei 
after  to  be  maintained  between  the  Indian  Committee 
of  Philadelphia  and  that  of  Baltimore,  the  manu- 
scripts I  have  overlooked  furnish  no  account  of  fur- 
ther correspondence  between  them,  until  some  years 
■ifter  the  date  of  this  letter  of  Thomas  Wistar. 


would  be  made  from  them;"  that  they  had 
proceeded  no  further  than  to  furnish  the  Mi- 
ami's with  two  ploughs,  a  harrow,  gears  and 
other  articles,  but  had  no  prospect  of  making 
an  early  settlement  amongst  them.  Thomas 
Wistar  mentions  that  he  was  informed  by 
Jonathan  Shefflin  that  the  Wyandot  speech 
was  ''in  answer  to  a  few  lines  left  (and  signed 
by  two  or  three  Friends)  at  their  village,"  and 
supposes  "  it  must  have  been  the  Friends  of 
your  Committee  who  were  in  that  country,  as 
from  us  none  have  been  sent  as  yet  amongst 
the  nations  west  of  the  River  Ohio."  He  con- 
eludes  with  the  following  caution  to  the  Balti- 
more Committee  :  "  We  are  aware  that  Indians 
very  generally  take  as  promises  what  may  be 
suggested  to  them  for  their  consideration,  as 
probable  to  take  place,  if  they  unite  with  it  ; 
we  have  of  late  been  very  guarded  in  our  com- 
munications with  them,  as  the  more  we  become 
acquainted  with  the  Indian  character  the  greater 
necessity  we  perceive  for  it." 

On  considering  the  speech  of  the  Wyandot 
chief,  the  Baltimore  Committee  on  Indian  Con- 
cerns made  an  enlargement  on  their  former  ap- 
pointment by  the  addition  of  Evan  Thomas  and 
George  EUicott,  who  were  directed  to  co-operate 
with  Reese  Cadwallader,  Joel  Wright  and  Na- 
than Heald.  They  were  desired  to  endeavor 
to  visit  those  Indians  in  order  to  cultivate  their 
friendship,  and,  if  way  should  open,  to  offer 
them  assistance. 


A  reply  was  also  written  and  forwarded  to( 
the  Indian  Committee  of  Philadelphia  Yearly; 
Meeting  in  part  as  follows  : 

'^  Dear  Friends, — The  correspondence  has,- 
on  our  part,  been  suspended  till  the  account 
should  be  received  from  the  Western  Indians,- 
which  is  now  communicated  by  you ;  they  pro-i 
bably  conceiving  that  Friends,  wherever  situ-i 
ated,  act  as  one  body  united.  As  the  Friends 
of  Pennsylvania  have  had  a  correspondence  withl 
them  at  times,  from  the  first  settlement  of  the 
country,  and  as  they,  in  their  present  address,i 
have  alluded  to  former  transactions,  it  seems 
the  more  necessary  for  us  to  apply  to  you  foi 
information  on  that  head.  We  have  been  aware 
of  our  own  inability  at  present  to  do  any  great 
matters,  and  have  endeavored  to  guard  against 
raising  their  expectations.  A  speech  was  some 
time  ago  communicated  to  some  of  the  chiefs 
of  the  Wyandot  nation,  at  the  Upper  Sandusky/ 
with  a  view  to  inform  them  that  we  were  de-! 
sirous  of  turning  their  minds  to  some  of  the 
most  simple  art's  of  civil  life;  and  we  wished 
to  know  of  them  whether  it  would  be  agreeable 
to  them  to  make  such  a  movement.  They  in-i 
formed  us  that  they  would  lay  the  subject  be- 
fore their  council  and  return  an  answer.  A 
copy  of  the  speech  was  left  with  them  addressed 
to  the  chiefs  of  the  Wyandot,  Shawanese  and 
Delaware  nations,  and  of  which  we  herewith 
hand  jou  a  copy  also. 


"■  We  sLoTild  have  been  pleased  with  the  re- 
ception of  the  original  speech  of  the  Wyandot 
Chiefs  and  the  belt  of  wampum  they  speak  of, 
with  a  copy  of  that  from  the  Delawares  and 
Miamis,  the  latter  being,  we  suppose,  of  the 
Shawanese  nation.  Five  of  our  number  are  ap- 
pointed to  attend  at  Sandusky  at  the  time  of 
the  great  Indian  Council,  of  which  you  will 
please  inform  the  Superintendent,*  and  com- 
municate such  further  information  on  the  sub- 
ject as  you  may  conceive  to  be  necessary.  We 
also  suggest  the  propriety  and  usefulness  of 
your  appointing  a  few  Friends  to  unite  in  the 
visit,  since  the  prudent  conducting  of  the  mat- 
ter may  be  of  great  importance. 

"As  you  are  better  acquainted  than  we  are 
with  the  mode  of  condur'ting  business  with  the 
Indians,  if  you  think  a  belt  of  wampum  will  be 
necessary  on  our  part,  you  will  please  to  pro- 
cure one  for  us  suitable  for  the  purpose,  to  be 
forwarded  with  the  original  speech  and  belt 
received  by  you,  and  we  will  remit  the  amount 
so  soon  as  you  advise  us  thereof. 

''  Signed  on  behalf  of  the  Indian  Committee 
of  Baltimore,  by 

"  Joel  Wright,  Clerk. 

'•Baltimore,  Third  month  24tb,  1^99." 

*  The  seat  of  Government  of  the  United  States  had 
not  then  been  removed  to  the  City  of  Washington. 
'  The  Superintendent  resided  in  Philadelphia. 



The  deputation  left  their  homes  on  the  7th  of 
5th  mo.  1799,  on  horse-back  and  with  pack 
horses  to  carry  a  tent,  provisions  for  the  jour- 
ney which  would  be  necessary  after  leaving  the 
settlements  of  Friends  in  Ohio,  and  useful  pres- 
ents to  the  Indians.  It  may  be  as  well  to  men- 
tion at  this  point,  as  the  subject  has  not  been  al- 
luded to  before  in  this  Appendix,  that  of  all  thttj 
missions  we  have  referred  to  as  sent  out  by  the 
Indian  Committeeof  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting, 
the  Friends  engaged  in  them  travelled  on  horse- 
back, and  experienced  privations  which  in  this 
day  of  railroads  and  telegraphs  cannot  be  appre- 
ciated. Valuable  sifts  for  their  Eed  brethren 
their  wives,  and  children,  were  never  omitted  or 
these  occasions. 

At  the  next  meeting  of  the  Indian  Commit 
tee,  which  was  held  in  Baltimore,  the  15th  anc 
16th  of  10th  month,  1799,  the  Friends  who  hac 
been  appointed  to  visit  the  Indians  made  theii 
report,  viz  :  "  Pursuant  to  our  appointment  wt 
sat  out  on  a  visit  to  the  Indians,  the  7th  of  5tl 
month  last,  and  arrived  the  3d  of  the  nex' 
month  at  Upper  Sandusky,  the  principal  villagi 
of  the  Wyandots ;  we  were  met  there  by  : 
friendly  reception  from  Tarhie,  (the  Crane,)  th( 
bead  chief,  and  others  of  the  nation  who  hap 
pened  to  be  at  the  village." 

On  conferring  with  them  they  found  that  ; 
mistake  in  translating  their  language  had  led  t 
a  misunderstanding  respecting  the  time  of  hold 


iiig  the  Grand  Indian  Council,  which  they  now 
understood  began  every  year  at  the  full  moon, 
in  the  6th  month  ;  they  were,  therefore,  too 
early  in  their  visit,  and  with  the  impossibility 
of  collecting  the  other  Indians  who  would  not 
be  likely  to  assemble  until  the  council,  they 
concluded  to  hold  a  conference  with  Tarhie  and 
the  other  chiefs  then  at  Sandusky,  in  his  house; 
and  had  a  free  conference  with  them  on  the  sub- 
ject of  their  visit.  Their  communication  was 
kindly  received,  and  an  answer  delivered  on 
four  strings  of  wampum,  expressive  of  their 
gratitude  for  the  care  and  friendship  of  the 
Quakers  f  and  as  soon  as  the  Grand  Council 
met,  they  would  communicate  to  it  the  concern 
the  Friends  now  felt  for  their  improvement,  and 
inform  us  by  a  written  speech  of  their  conclu- 
sion thereon." 

They  conclude  their  report  by  remarking  : 
•' AVhile  we  were  at  Sandusky  and  in  other  In- 

*Tarhie  continued  ever  after  to  devote  himself  to 
the  improvement  of  his  people,  and  lived  to  be  the 
oldest  Indian  in  the  West.  He  had  signed  a  treaty 
between  the  United  States  and  the  Indians  as  early 
as  1*786,  and  although  obliged  by  his  warriors  to  take 
part  in  the  revolt  which  soon  after  took  place,  and 
in  the  battles  subsequently  fought,  he  appears  to 
have  been  the  first  to  persuade  the  Indians  to  make 
a  virtue  of  necessity,  to  "bury  the  hatchet,"  and 
yield  to  the  superior  power  of  the  white  men.  He 
was  cruelly  executed  by  the  order  of  Tecumseh,  ia 


dian  villages,  our  minds  were  often  deeply  af- 1 
fected  under  the  sorrowful  consideration  of  the 
baneful  effect  of  spirituous  liquors  on  them,  being 
abundantly  supplied  with  it  in  almost  every  vil- 
lage by  Canadian  traders  residing  among  them; 
and  we  are  confirmed  in  the  opinion,  that  unless 
the  traders  can  be  restrained  from  furnishing 
them  with  this  destructive  article,  in  exchange 
for  their  skins  and  furs,  they  will  not  easily  bo 
persuaded  to  turn  their  minds  towards  agricul- 
ture and  the  useful  arts.  At  the  same  time,  we 
have  no  doubt  that  these  unprincipled  men  will 
make  use  of  the  great  influence  they  have  over 
the  Indians  to  keep  them  in  their  present  mode 
of  living,  as  most  conducive  to  their  own  in- 
terests. Notwithstanding  this  cause  of  dis- 
couragement, the  great  affection  which  the  In- 
dians have  always  manifested  for  our  Society, 
induces  us  to  desire  that  Friends  may  endeavor 
to  keep  under  the  weight  of  the  concern,  and 
be  prepared  to  proceed  in  the  benevolent  work 
before  them,  whenever  the  way  may  open  for 
service  among  them. 
Signed  by 

Evan  Thomas, 
Joel  Wright, 
Reese  Cadwalader, 
George  Ellicott. 
Dated  Monongahela^  Qth  mo.  26th,  1779. 

In  the  manuscript  journal  of  George  Ellicott  to 


the  Plains  of  Sandusky,  tte  following  relation  of 
the  interview  between  the  Friends  and  the 
Wyandot  Chiefs  is  preserved  : 

'^  After  Evan  Thomas  had  concluded  his  dis- 
course, which  was  delivered  by  paragraphs 
through  an  interpreter,  Tarhie,  (the  Crane,)  the 
principal  chief,  took  into  his  hand  four  strings 
of  wampum,  and  began  his  speech.  As  he 
proceeded,  he  continually  kept  the  strings  of 
wampum  moving,  and  spoke  in  a  methodical 
way,  and  with  the  force  and  manner  of  an  orator. 
I  make  no  doubt,  if  the  interpreter  had  been 
able  to  do  justice  to  the  sentiments  expressed, 
we  should  have  pronounced  a  verdict  highly  in 
favor  of  the  eloquence  of  this  son  of  the  forest. 

After  he  had  finished  his  speech,  he  desired 
his  wife  (who  occupied  an  apartment  above  the 
council  room,  so  situated  that  she  could  hear 
what  passed),  to  hand  down  to  him  the  papers, 
which  he  had ;  which  she  did.  We  read  them, 
and  found  among  them  Wayne's  treaty,  and  a 
i  long  paper  containing  much  good  advice  from  the 
Secretary  of  War. 

When  the  Indians  hold  a  council,  they  have 
some  of  their  principal  women  placed  in  a  little 
room,  either  adjoining  or  overhead,  where  they 
can  hear  perfectly  all  that  passes.  This  they 
treasure  up  in  their  minds,  and  as  they  are  apt 
to  have  retentive  memories,  their  traditions  are 
faithfully  preserved." 

The  manuscripts  in  my  possession  furnish  no 


record  of  tlie  proceedings  of  the  Indian  Com^ 
mittee,  from  the  reception  of  this  report  to  thei 
17th  of  -ith  month,  1801,  when  an  account  is! 
given  of  a  meeting,  at  which  a  committee  was 
appointed  to  draft  a  letter  to  Tarhie,  Buck- 
ingehelas,  and  other  chiefs  of  the  Wyandot  and: 
Delaware  nations  of  Indians,  in  return  for  a  let-, 
ter  and  speech  which  had  been  received  fromi 
them,  which  did  not  contain  a  full  reply  to  the( 
proposition  made  to  the  Indians  in  1799.  Thei 
committee  supposed  their  communication  had 
not  been  faithfully  translated,  and  again  inquiredl 
of  their  Red  brethren  :  "  Are  you  willing  to 
have  your  children  instructed  at  home,  on  your 
own  lands,  how  to  raise  plenty  of  corn,  to  make 
clothes,  and  to  build  houses ;  to  keep  your  old 
men,  your  women  and  children  warm  when  the 
weather  is  cold ;  and  that  you  may  not  suffer 
from  want  when  the  game  gets  scarce  in  your 
country  ?" 

Signed  by 

George  Ellicott, 

Joel  Wright, 

Israel  Janney, 


Dated  Baltimore^  4:th  month  llthy  1801. 

At  their  next  meeting  the  Indian  Committee 
of  Baltimore  was  informed  by  a  communication 
from  Joel  Wright,  that  nothing  had  been  re- 
ceived from  the  Indians  since  the  last  meeting, 
and  no  business  was  transacted. 


The  next  meeting  of  the  committee  was  a  , 
special  one,  and  held  at  Pi^e  Creek,  the  24th  of  fj 
the  5th  month,  1802.  This  meeting  was  called 
in  consequence  of  a  part  of  the  committee  hav- 
ing had  a  conference  with  a  number  of  Indian 
chiefs  in  Baltimore.  The  chiefs  were  on  their 
way  to  Washington,  the  seat  of  Government, 
and  were  waited  on  at  their  lodgings,  the 
Fountain  Inn,  Light  Street,  by  the  members  of 
thelndian  Committee  of  Baltimore  and  Ellicott's 
Mills,  to  confer  with  them  on  subjects  of  deep  im- 
portance to  their  Red  brethren,  viz  :  the  introduc- 
tion into  their  tribes  of  some  of  the  arts  of  civil- 
ized life,  and  to  remonstrate  against  the  use  of 
spirituous  liquors.  The  Baltimore  members  pre- 
sented to  the  General  Indian  Committee  the 
whole  account  of  their  conference,  and  the 
memorial  they  had  presented  to  Congress 
against  the  introduction  of  spirituous  liquors 
into  the  Indian  settlements.  As  the  account  of 
the  conference  was  published  in  several  of  the 
newspapers,  I  give  the  following  extract  from  one 
of  them : 

"  The  editors  having  obtained  a  genuine  copy 
of  the  proceedings  of  the  committee  appointed 
by  the  Yearly  Meeting  of  the  respectable  So- 
ciety of  Friends,  in  two  conferences  with  the 
Indian  Chiefs  from  the  banks  of  the  Wabash, 
Lake  Erie,  and  Lake  Michigan,  being  from  the 
Pottowattomy,  Miami,  Delaware,  Shawanese, 
Weas,    Eel  *  River,     Piankashaw,      Kickapoo 


and  Kaskaskia  tribes  of  Indians,  who  lately 
passed  through  this  city  on  their  way  to  the 
Federal  Government,  feel  no  small  degree  of 
pleasure  in  having  it  in  their  power  to  gratify 
an  inquisitive  public  with  the  interesting  con- 

Besides  the  members  of  the  Society  of  Friends, 
many  respectable  persons  of  different  religious 
persuasions  were  present,  and  the  communica- 
tions were  taken  down  with  accuracy  by  Gerard 
T.  Hopkins,  a  stenographer  of  great  ability. 
William  Wells,  agent  for  the  United  States 
amongst  the  Indians  North-west  of  the  Ohio, 
was  the  interpreter.  He  was  a  native  of  Ken- 
tucky, and  had  been  taken  captive  by  the 
Miamis  when  only  eight  years  of  age, — had 
afterwards  been  adopted  by  one  of  the  chiefs, 
and  continued  to  reside  amongst  them.  On  this 
occasion  he  had  attained  his  thirty-fifth  year, 
and  being  possessed  of  good  talents,  not  only 
spoke  the  language  of  the  Tribes  represented  by 
the  Little  Turtle,  the  Five  Medals,  and  other 
Indians  present,  but  also  the  English  language 
with  fluency,  and  wrote  well. 

On  the  first  interview  of  the  committee  with 
the  Chiefs,  which  was  on  the  26th  of  the  12th 
month,  1801,  the  exercises  commenced  by  the 
following  short,  but  expressive  address  from 
Elisha  Tyson,  in  whose  house  the  Indian  Delega- 
tion, the  Indian  Committee  and  their  friends,  were 
convened;  he  was  not  at  the  time  a  member  of: 


the  committee,  but  was  interested  ia  all  philan- 
thropic movements. 

"  Brothers  and  Friends  :  I  am  desirous  in  the 
early  part  of  this  opportunity,  that  you  may  be 
informed,  that  the  people  called  Quakers  con- 
sider all  mankind  as  their  brothers :  that  they 
believe  the  Great  Spirit  and  Father  of  all  man- 
kind created  all  men  of  one  blood  ;  and  that  it 
is  the  will  of  Him,  who  also  created  the  sun, 
the  moon,  and  the  stars,  and  causes  them  to  give 
us  light, — the  G-reat  Spirit  and  common  Father 
of  all  mankind,— that  we  should  not  do  one  another 
hurt,  but  that  we  should  do  one  another  all  the 
good  we  can  ;  and  it  is  on  this  ground,  and  this 
principle,  that  we  believe  it  right  to  take  you  by 
the  hand." 

Then  after  a  short  time  spent  in  silence,  an- 
other member  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  John 
M'Kim,  spoke,  declaring  "  that  the  Quakers  be- 
lieved it  required  of  them  to  love  all  men, 
jwithout  reference  to  location  or  complexion ; 
that  they  were  convinced  it  was  not  in  their 
power  to  perform  their  religious  duties  to  the 
Great  Creator  of  all  things  without  his  assistance, 
and  therefore  felt  it  their  duty,  when  entering 
upon  such  important  business  as  that  in  which 
they  were  about  to  engage,  to  sit  down  in 
istillness  and  wait  upon  Him."  After  some- 
Jthing  more  on  this  subject,  and  a  reference  to 
ithe  Yearly  Meetings  of  Philadelphia  and  Balti- 
more, he  proceeded  to  say  that  '•  the  Friends  re- 


membered  the  friendship  which  had  subsisted 
between  their  Society  and  the  Indians,  fron: 
their  first  settlement  in  America ;  and  recollect 
ing  that  the  Western  country  was  fast  filling  uf 
with  white  people,  and  that  game  would  ne 
cessarily  become  scarce,  they  feared  the  Indianj 
would  be  brought  into  a  state  of  sufi"ering 
That,  in  consequence  of  the  long  wars  that  hac 
subsisted  between  them  and  some  of  the  whit« 
people,  the  Friends  for  a  long  time  had  not  hac 
an  opportunity  of  taking  them  by  the  hand! 
That  so  soon  as  an  opportunity  had  presented! 
after  a  peace  was  efi"ectedj  a  concern  had  arisei 
in  their  council,  and  several  Friends  were  ap 
pointed  to  go  out  into  the  wilderness  and  have; 
talk  with  them.  He  then  called  upon  thi 
Friend  who  sat  at  his  right  hand,  Evan  Thomas 
who  had  been  one  of  the  mission  to  the  Plain;i 
of  Sandusky,  to  give  an  account  of  the  move 
ment  in  this  concern,  Evan  Thomas  then  gavi 
a  very  concise  relation  of  the  journey,  and  th' 
conference  with  the  Wyandot  Chiefs,  (whicl 
has  been  before  alluded  to,  and  of  which  ; 
narrative  was  published  some  years  since  bj 
Philip  E.  Thomas,)  and  proceeded  to  inform  th^ 
deputation  that  the  Friends  had  received  no  re 
sponse  to  the  proposals  then  made  to  the  In 
<iians  ;  but  a  belt  of  wampum  and  a  speech  ha( 
been  sent  them  from  a  council  held  at  Detroit 
and  an  invitation  to  attend  their  General  Coun 
oil.     After  he  had  concluded,  another  membe 

APPENDIX.  16fl 

of  the  Indian   Committee,  George  Ellicott,  ad- 
dressed the  chiefs  as  follows  : 

"  Brothers  and  Friends:  We  were  glad  when 
we  heard  that  some  of  our  Red  brethren  were 
coming  to  this  city,  and  felt  our  minds  drawn 
to  take  them  by  the  hand,  and  have  an  oppor- 
tunity of  knowing  them.  As  we  have  not  been 
made  acquainted  with  their  circumstances,  we 
have  not  been  able  to  judge  whether  any  thing 
we  have  had  to  propose  to  do  for  them  would  be 
accepted  ?  Whether  they  are  really  under  the 
necessity  of  applying  to  some  other  mode  of 
living  to  obtain  a  livelihood,  and  whether  game  in 
t'leir  country  is  yet  plenty?  We  have  thought, 
brothers,  that  if  it  should  not  yet  be  the  case, 
that  game  is  scarce,  at  the  present  time,  it  will 
probably  be  the  case  in  some  future  time  ;  and, 
therefore,  we  have  thought  it  would  be  best  for 
our  Red  brethren  to  give  some  attention  to  the 
cultivation  of  the  soil.  This  is  one  of  the  subject* 
which  has  claimed  our  attention  ;  and  as  we  feel 
in  our  hearts  that  we  love  the  Indians  and  desire 
their  welfare,  we  wish  to  turn  their  attention  to  the 
subject;  we  also  believe,  brothers,  that  we 
derive  a  very  great  advantage  from  reading 
books  which  contain  instruction,  we  wish  that 
our  brethren,  the  Indians,  should  partake  of  the 
same  means  of  instruction  with  ourselves.  We 
wish  you  to  let  us  know  with  candor,  whether 
you  desire  these  things,  and  if  you  do  so,  that 
we  may  do  for  you  whatever  may  be  in  our 


After  a  sbort  pause^  the  Little  Turtle  inquires 
if  the  Friends  had  any  thiwg  more  to  say,  an! 
being  told  that  we  were  all  willing  to  listen  V 
him,  he  rose  up  and  said  : 

"  Brothers  and  Friends :     My  heart  return 
thanks  to  the  Great  Spirit  above,  that  has  put : 
in    our     power   to-  speak  to   each   other.     Ml 
brother   chiefs    and    myself  are  glad  that  cm 
Friends  and  brothers,  the  Quakers,  have  sue 
great  compassion  for  their  Red  brethren."     HI 
then   spoke  of  the  belief  of  the  Indians,  "ii; 
one   Great   Creator    of   all  the  men  upon  th' 
earth,  and  who  were  made  when  the  earth,  th: 
sun,  moon  and  stars  were  also  made,  to  be  usefi 
to  them  and  give  them  light.''     After  referrin 
to  the  desire  of  the  Friends  to  benefit  the  Ir 
dians,   and    their    need    of  that  assistance,  h 
added:    "You  have  been  kept  in  the  straigh 
path   by    the    Great    and    Good    Spirit.      W 
have  been   led  astray    by  inferior   spirits :    w 
now  hope  that  we  may  come  upon  your  tracii 
and    follow  it."     He  then  said  "  the  long  an 
destructive  wars  that  have  raged  in  the  countn 
of  our   Red  brethren,    since   your  fathers  firs 
came  amongst  them,  have  caused  their  numberi 
to  be  greatly  diminished.  Those  that  have  com! 
among  us,  have  very  much  cheated  and  impose' 
upon  us.     They  found  us  simple  and  ignoran 
and  have  taken  great  care  to  keep  every  thin 
from  us,  in  order  to  profit  by  our  ignorance. 
''  Friends  and  Brothers, — We  find  you  are  nor 


disposed,  with  open  arms  to  receive  us,  and  we 
hope  the  Great  Spirit  will  assist  you,  together 
with  the  Great  Chief  of  the  White  People,  to 
whom  we  are  about  to  apply  for   help. 

'' Brothers  and  Friends,— At  the  Treaty  of 
Grenville,  which  is  now  a  little  past  six  years, 
we  received  some  presents  by  the  hand  of  the 
Great  War  Chief  of  the  Americans  (General 
Wayne) — said  to  be  sent  to  us  by  our  brothers 
the  Quakers.  After  this  Treaty  I  was  invited 
by  the  Great  War  Chief  of  the  Americans  to 
visit  them.  It  is  now  four  years  since  I  visit- 
ed them  in  Philadelphia,  whilst  the  Great  Coun- 
cil was  held  in  that  city.  I  had  there  an  oppor- 
tunity to  see  our  brothers  the  Quakers,  and  re- 
ceived from  their  mouths  some  of  their  talks : 
all  these  talks  I  wrapped  up  in  my  heart,  and 
when  I  returned  home  to  my  brothers  I  told 
them  all  those  good  things  which  you  had  told 
us  you  were  desirous  to  do  for  us." 

"  Brothers  and  Friends, — I  am  happy  to  say 
that  these  my  Red  Brothers  now  present  with 
me  are  Chiefs,  who  in  their  own  country  are 
equally  great  with  myself;  they  were  rejoiced  to 
hear  your  words  delivered  to  them  through  me 
four  years  ago  ;  and  they  are  equally  glad  with 
myself  to  hear  from  the  mouths  of  our  brothers 
the  Quakers  the  same  good  -words  again.  If  we 
understand  you  right,  you  wish  to  add  comfort 
to  our  women  and  children  by  teaching  us  and 



them  some  of  your  ways  of  living.  I  am  glad 
that  the  Great  Spirit  has  put  it  into  your  hearts, 
and  am  sorry  that  your  efforts  have  not  yet  been 

"  Brothers  and  Friends,-!  now  assure  you,  that 
you  hear  the  voice  of  the  Potowatomy,  Miami, 
Delaware,  Shawanese,  Weas,  Eel  River,  Pianka- 
shaw,  Kickapoo,  and  Kaskaskia  Tribes  of  Indi 
ans,  and  if  you  wish  to  do  any  thing  for  any  of; 
these  nations  we  will  at  all  times  be  ready  to 
render  any  assistance  in  our  power." 

The  Little  Turtle  then  again  alluded  to  the  plea- 
sure they  had  received  from  the  words  of  the 
Friends  of  Philadelphia,  and  were  equally  pleased 
to  hear  the  same  good  words  from  the  Friends  ot 
of  Baltimore.  He  then  mentioned  that  the  Friends 
of  Philadelphia  had  given  them  some  tools,  among 
which  were  "  two  ploughs.''*  "  I  used  them, 
and  did  all  I  could  to  keep  them  from  wearing 
out ;  I  was  pleased  with  them  ;  they  now  need 
repair ;  we  have  nobody  among  us  that  can  mend 
them,  and  they  are  now  useless  to  me."  Hci 
then  referred  to  a  visit  they  had  made  to  Phila-i! 
delphia  five  days  since,  and  the  talks  they  had  hadi 
together  with  the  Quakers  there,  and  concluded 
by  inviting  the  Friends  of  Baltimore  to  meet  thtj 
Indian  tribes  at  their  next  Great  Council,  held 
annually  at  Fort  Wayne,  at  the  time  the  Indian? 
receive  their  annuities  from  the  United  States 

*  Alluded  to  in  the  letter  of  Thomas  Wistar. 

APPENDIX.  ,     167 

and  requested  that  any  information  intended  for 
them  should  be  conveyed  to  them  through  their 
interpreter,  William  Wells,  Indian  agent  at  Fort 

After  taking  his  seat,  this  chief  appeared  to 
have  reflected  that  he  had  not  answered  fully 
the  questions  proposed  to  them,  and  rising  again, 
said  : 

"  Brothers  and  Friends  :  It  is  the  real  wish 
of  your  brothers,  the  Indians,  to  engage  in  the 
cultivation  of  our  lands,  and  although  the  game 
is  not  yet  so  scarce  but  that  we  can  get  enough 
to  cat,  we  know  it  is  becoming  scarce,  and  that 
we  must  begin  to  take  hold  of  such  tools  as  we 
see  are  in  the  hands  of  the  white  people.'^  After- 
wards he  alluded  in  forcible  language  to  the  con- 
fidence which  the  Red  men  had  in  the  Friends, 
and  that  they  knew  they  desired  no  compensa- 
tion for  their  services  to  them,  and  added,  "  Bro- 
thers; we  are  a  jealously  disposed  people — almost 
every  white  man  that  comes  among  us  endeavors 
to  cheat  us;  this  has  occasioned  jealousy  among 
us.  But  your  talks,  brothers,  are  different,  and 
we  believe  you." 

The  Five  Medals  then  made  a  speech,  in 
which  he  reiterated  much  that  the  Little  Turtle 
had  spoken,  and  continued:  "Friends  and  Broth- 
ers, the  talks  that  you  have  now  delivered  to 
us  shall  be  carefully  collected,  wrapped  up  and 
put  in  our  hearts, — we  will  not  forget  them. 
On  our  return  home,  we  will  have  them  com- 

168      -  APPENDIX. 

municated  from  the  head  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Wabash, — from  this  to  the  Mississippi,  and 
up  that  river  until  it  strikes  the  lakes,  thence 
round  by  Michillimackanack  until  they  come 
back  again  to  the  same  place.  What  we  say  to 
you  does  not  come  from  one,  but  from  many, 
and  what  you  have  now  said  to  us,  you  speak  it  to 
but  a  few,  but  it  shall  be  communicated  to  many. 
"  Brothers  and  Friends,  I  observed  to  our 
friends,  the  Quakers  of  Philadelphia,  five  days 
ago,  what  I  say  now  to  you,  that  we  wish  our 
brothers,  the  Quakers,  to  render  us  those  services 
they  have  proposed.  We  promise  that  nothing 
shall  be  wanting  on  our  part  to  give  aid  to  so 
desirable  a  thing  in  our  country.  Our  situation 
at  present  will  not  admit  of  carrying  such  a 
plan  so  fully  into  execution  as  we  could  desire, 
but  I  hope  you  may  not  be  prevented  from  ma- 
king trial.  If  we  had  such  tools  as  you  make 
use  of;  and  which  add  so  much  to  your  comfort — 
for  we  have  been  lost  in  wonder  at  what  we  have 
seen  among  you, — if  we  had  these  instruments, 
we  should,  I  hope,  be  willing  to  use  them. 

"  From  the  great  things,  and  astonishing 
wonders,  which  we  have  seen  among  you,  and 
finding  they  all  eome  out  of  the  earth,  it  makes 
me  anxious  to  try  if  I  cannot  get  some  for  my- 

He  then  expressed  his  regret  that  the  move- 
ments of  the  Friends  towards  the  Indians  had 


not  met  with  the  success  which  they  deserved,  allu- 
ding to  their  having  received  no  satisfactory  re- 
ply from  the  Wyandots  and  Delawares,  and 
concluded  with  observing,  "  There  is  a  great 
deal,  brothers,  in  having  a  good  interpreter,  and 
beginning  at  the  right  end  of  the  business.  " 
[The  Indian  Committee  who  had  had  the  inter- 
view with  Tarhie,  (the  Crane,)  and  a  few  of  his 
chiefs  at  Sandusky,  were  under  the  impression 
that  their  speech  to  the  Indians  was  not  clearly 
translated,  of  which  a  hint  had  been  given,  and 
hence  the  remarks  of  the  Five  Medals.] 

Here  the  interview  with  the  Indians  closed. 

After  reflecting  on  the  subject  of  their  con- 
ference with  the  Indian  Chiefs,  the  members  of 
the  Indian  Committee  regretted  that  they  had 
not  made  use  of  that  opportunity  to  express 
their  opinion  on  the  subject  of  the  use  of  spirit- 
uous liquors.  Another  meeting  of  the  Com- 
mittee and  their  friends  was  accordingly  called, 
and  the  chiefs  were  invited  to  attend.  They  met 
again  at  the  dwelling  of  Elisha  Tyson.  After  a 
brief  representation  of  the  reason  for  another 
interview  given  by  a  friend,  Evan  Thomas  ad- 
dressed the  chiefs  in  a  forcible  communication, 
which  was  full  of  feeling  ;  after  assuring  them 
that  the  love  he  felt  for  the  Indians,  and  his 
interest  in  their  welfare,  had  taken  away  all 
fear  of  giving  them  offence,  he  proceeded  to  ac- 
knowledge what  he  had  witnessed  in  his  visit  to 
the  AVyandot  Nation,  and  his  beUef  that  the  too 


frequent  use  of  spirituous  liquors  was  more  im 
the  way  of  their  improvement  than  anything 
else,  and  appealed  to  them  thus  :  ''  Are  you  off 
the  same  mind  with  us  who  are  your  friends,  and-1 
have  your  good  at  heart ;  that  it  would  be  right 
for  us  to  take  the  subject  into  our  serious  con- 
sideration, to  endeavor  to  discover  whether' 
there  may  not  be  some  steps  taken  that  would 
put  a  check  upon  this  pernicious  thing  ?"  ! 

After  calling  upon  the  chiefs  to  express  them- 
selves freely  in  regard  to  the  concern,  the 
Little  Turtle  inquired  if  any  of  his  broth- 
ers, the  Quakers,  had  any  further  communica- 
tion to  make,  and  being  desired  to  proceed,  rose 
up  and  said  :  "■  Brothers  and  Friends,  I  am 
happy  to  find  it  has  pleased  the  Great  Spirit, 
that  we  should  again  meet  in  the  same  house  in 
which  we  held  our  council  yesterday.  I  am 
happy  to  find  that  it  is  the  will  of  the  Great 
and  Good  Spirit  that  we  should  discover  that 
there  was  something  omitted  yesterday,  that 
was  highly  necessary  for  your  red  brethren. 

''  Friends  and  brothers,  [  am  glad  to  find  that 
it  has  pleased  the  Great  Spirit  to  put  a  wish  in 
your  hearts  on  the  subject  you  have  mentioned; 
a  subject  of  the  greatest  importance  to  us. 
What  you  have  said  relative  to  our  being  ooe 
flesh  and  blood  is  true.  Your  brothers,  the  In- 
dians, believe  that  it  is  in  this  light  the  Great 
Spirit  considers  ail  mankind. '^  He  afterwards 
remarked,  that  the  Indians  had  Ions  been  aware 


of  tlie  great  evils  which  had  ^  raged'  in  their 
country,  but  could  obtain  no  redress ;  that  since 
the  introduction  of  spirituous  liquors  among 
them,  their  numbers  were  greatly  diminished, 
and  taking  advantage  of  the  request  which  had 
been  made,  that  they  should  express  themselves 
freely,  added  :  "  I  will  now  take  the  liberty  to 
mention,  that  most  of  the  evils  existing  among 
the  Red  people,  have  been  caught  from  the  white 
people ;  not  only  that  liquor  which  destroys  us 
daily,  but  many  diseases  that  our  forefathers  were 
ignorant  of,  before  they  saw  you. 

"Brothers  and  Friends  : — I  am  glad  you  have 
seen  this  business  as  we  do,  and  rejoice  to  find 
that  you  agree  in  opinion  with  us,  and  express 
an  anxiety  to  be,  if  possible,  of  service  to  us, 
to  remove  this  great  evil  out  of  our  country  ;  an 
evil  that  has  had  so  much  ruin  in  it, — that  has 
destroyed  so  many  of  our  lives,  that  it  causes  our 
young  men  to  say,  '  We  had  better  be  at  war 
with  the  white  people.'  This  liquor  that  they 
introduce  into  our  country,  is  more  to  be  feared 
than  the  gun  or  the  tomahawk ;  there  are  more 
of  us  dead  since  the  treaty  of  Grrenville,  than 
we  lost  by  the  years  of  war  before,  and  it  is  all 
owing  to  the  introduction  of  this  liquor  among 
us.  This  subject,  brothers,  composes  a  part  of 
what  we  intend  to  make  known  to  the  Great 
Council  of  our  White  brethren.  On  our  arrival 
there,  we  shall  endeavor  to  explain  to  our  Great 


Father,  the  President,  a  great  many  evils  that 
have  arisen  in  our  country,  from  the  introduc- 
tion of  this  liquor  by  the  white  traders. 

"  Brothers  and  Friends:  In  addition  to  what 
I  have  before  observed  of  this  great  evil  in  the 
country  of  your  red  brethren,  I  will  say  further, 
that  it  has  made  us  poor.  It  is  this  liquor  that 
causes  our  young  men  to  go  without  clothes,  and 
our  women  and  children  to  go  without  anything 
to  eat,  and  sorry  I  am  to  mention  now  to  you, 
brothers,  the  evil  is  increasing  every  day,  as  the 
white  settlers  come  nearer  to  us,  and  bring  those 
kettles  they  boil  that  stuflf  in  they  call  whiskey, 
of  which  our  young  men  are  so  extremely  fond. 
Brothers,  when  our  young  men  have  been  out 
hunting,  and  are  returning  home  loaded  with 
skins  and  furs,  on  their  way,  if  it  happens  that 
they  come  along  where  some  of  this  whiskey  is 
deposited,  the  White  man  who  sells  it,  tells  them 
to  take  a  little  drink ;  some  of  them  will  saj' 
no,  I  do  not  want  it  3  they  go  on  until  they 
come  to  another  house,  where  they  find  more  of 
the  same  kind  of  drink;  it  is  there  again  offered, 
they  refuse,  and  again  the  third  time;  but 
finally  the  fourth  or  fifth  time,  one  accepts  of  it 
and  takes  a  drink,  and  getting  one,  he  wants 
another,  and  then  a  third,  and  fourth,  till  his 
senses  have  left  him.  After  this,  reason  comes 
back  to  him;  when  he  gets  up  and  finds  where 
he  is,  and  asks  for  his  peltry,  the  answer  is,  you 
have  drank  them.     Where  is  my  gun  ?     It  is 


gone.  Where  is  my  blanket  ?  It  is  gone. 
Where  is  my  shirt  ?  You  have  sold  it  for 
whiskey !  Now,  brothers,  figure  to  yourselves 
what  a  condition  this  man  must  be  in ; 
he  has  a  family  at  home,  a  wife  and  children, 
who  stand  in  need  of  the  profits  of  his  hunting, 
what  must  their  wants  be,  when  he  himself  is 
also  without  a  shirt."  After  expressing  his 
hope  that  the  G-reat  Spirit  would  aid  the 
Friends  in  their  efibrts  to  assist  the  Indians,  and 
that  they  would  use  any  influence  they  possessed 
with  the  great  council  of  the  United  States  on 
their  behalf,  and  again  alluding  to  the  baneful 
efi'ects  of  spirituous  liquors,  and  the  bad  advice 
of  wicked  men  who  wished  to  keep  them  in  ig- 
norance, he  finished  by  declaring  that  he  desired 
all  that  he  had  said  should  be  made  public, 
provided  the  Friends  had  no  objection   thereto. 

The  Five  Medals  then  rose  and  said : — "  My 
Brothers  and  Friends:  I  have  nothing  to  say  on 
the  subject  we  have  now  been  talking  over.  3Iy 
friend,  the  Little  Turtle,  has  given  you  a  full 
answer  to  those  things  you  have  mentioned  to 
us;  we  are  but  one  people,  and  have  but  one 
voice.  We  hope,  brothers,  that  your  friendship 
and  ours  may  never  be  broken." 

Evan  Thomas,  then  addressed  them  again  as 
follows  . — "  Friends  and  Brothers:  What  you 
have  communicated  at  this  time,  has  been 
clearly  understood,  and  we  are  glad  to  find  we 
see  things  in  the  same  light  that  you  see  them. 


The  several  matters  you  have  mentioned,  and 
the  difficulties  you  have  stated,  claim  our  sym- 
pathy and  solid  consideration,  and  we  shall,  I 
trust,  take  the  subject  up,  and  if  way  should 
open  for  us  to  move  forward,  in  aiding  you  in 
your  application  to  the  General  Government,  we 
shall  be  willing,  either  on  this  occasion,  or  anyi 
other,  to  render  you  any  service  in  our  power." 
The  conference  then  broke  up,  and  the  Indian 
Committee  prepared  and  forwarded  to  the  Con- 
gress of  the  United  States,  the  following  me- 

''  To  the  Congress  of  tlte  United  States  : 
'^  The  memorial  of  the  Committee  appointed 
for    Indian    affairs   by  the  Yearly  Meeting   of 
Friends  held  in  Baltimore,  respectfully  repre- 

"That  a  concern  to  introduce  amongst  some 
of  the  Indian  tribes  north-west  of  the  river  Ohio, 
the  most  simple  and  useful  arts  of  civil  life, 
being  several  years  since  laid  before  our  Yearly 
Meeting,  a  Committee  was  appointed  by  that 
body,  to  visit  them,  to  examine  their  situation, 
and  endeavor  to  ascertain  in  what  manner  so 
desirable  a  purpose  could  be  effected.  A  part 
of  that  Committee,  after  having  obtained  the 
approbation  of  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  proceeded  to  perform  the  service  assigned 
them,  and  the  result  of  their  enquiries  and  ob- 
servations, as  reported  to  the  Yearly  Meeting, ,, 
was,  that  the  quantity  of  spirituous  liquors  with 


Tvhicli  tlie  Indians  are  supplied,  by  traders,  and 
frontier  settlers,  must  counteract  the  effect  of 
every  measure,  however  wise  and  salutary, 
which  can  be  devised  to  improve  their  situa- 
tion. .      1      J      1 

"The  truth  of  this  assertion  is  abundantly 
confirmed  by  a  speech  made  before  us,  by  a 
Miami  chief,  the  Little  Turtle,  (of  which  we 
herewith  transmit  a  copy  for  your  consideration.) 
and  we  also  acknowledge  our  belief,  that  the 
evil  is  of  such  magnitude^  that  unless  it  can  be 
altogether  removed  or  greatly  restrained,  no 
rational  hope  of  success  in  the  proposed  under- 
taking can  be  entertained.  We  are  therefore 
inducted  to  solicit  the  attention  of  the  National 
Legislature  to  this  interesting  and  important 
subject;  a  subject  which  we  consider  involves, 
not  only  their  future  welfare,  but  even  their  very 
existence  as  a  people. 

"  Signed  on  behalf  of  the  Committee,  by 
Evan  Thomas,  John  M'Kira , 

Elias  Ellicott,  Joel  Wright, 

John  Brown,  George  Ellicott, 

David  Brown. 
Baltimore,  1st  month,  1802." 

These  Friends  soon  after  repaired  to  the  seat 
of  government,  presented  their  memorial  to 
Conc^ress,  and  were  gratified  by  the  passage  of 
the  law,  which  they  so  much  desired.  Whilst 
in  Washington  they  waited  on  the  Secretary,  of 


War.  The  law  passed  by  CoDgress,  authorized 
the  President  of  the  United  States  '4o  take 
such  measures  from  time  to  time,  as  to  him  may 
seem  expedient,  to  prevent  or  restrain  the  vend- 
ing or  distributing  of  spirituous  liquors,  among, 
all  or  any  of  the  Indian  tribes." 

On  the  subject  of  civilization  the  law  states' 
''that  in  order  to  promote  civilization  amongsl 
the  friendly  Indian  tribes,  and  to  secure  the  con- 
tinuance of  their  friendship,  it  shall  be  lawful 
for  the  President  of  the  United  States  to  cause( 
them  to  be  furnished  with  useful  domestic  ani- 
mals, and  implements  of  husbandry,  and  with! 
goods  or  money  as  he  shall  judge  proper,  and  to 
appoint  such  persons  from  time  to  time,  as  tem- 
porary agents  to  reside  amongst  the  Indians,  as 
he  shall  think  fit;  provided  that  the  whole 
amount  of  such  presents  and  allowance  to  such 
agents  shall  not  exceed  fifteen  thousand  dollars 
per  annum.'' 

The  Committee  reported  their  progress  to  a 
general  meeting  of  the  Committee  on  Indiar- 
concerns,  which  was  held  in  Baltimore,  13th  oli 
10th  month,  1802,*  and  informed  them  of  th€< 
conferences  which  had  been  held  with  the  Indian 
chiefs;  the  chiefs  of  those  nations  whom  Baltii 

^During  the  session  of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting 
The  general  meeting  of  the  Indian  Committee,  ol 
Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting,  in  consequence  of  the  re- 
mote residence  of  some  of  the  members,  met  once  8 

APi'ENDIX.  177 

more  Yearlj^  Meeting  had  it  in  contemplation  to 
visit.  Their  report  presented  the  speeches  of 
the  chiefs,  the  memorial  of  the  Committee  to 
Congress,  a  copy  of  the  law  passed  by  Congress, 
and  an  account  of  their  interview  with  the  Sec- 
retary of  War,  with  the  information  received 
from  him.  The  War  department  at  this  period 
of  the  government  of  the  United  States  had  the 
care  of  Indian  affairs,  and  the  Secretary  informed 
the  Friends  that,  agreeably  to  the  request  of  the 
Indians,  the  government  had  established  a  tra- 
ding house  at  Fort  Wayne,  that  they  were  in 
want  of  several  persons  of  our  Society;  black- 
smiths, carpenters,  and  superintendents,  men 
that  could  make  and  mend  ploughs,  looms,  farm- 
ing utensils,  &c.,  and  wished  to  employ  such 
as  were  of  exemplary  conduct,  and  concerned  for 
the  promotion  of  the  work  in  prospect;  to  such 
the  United  States  offered  a  liberal  compensa- 

At  the  next  meeting  which  was  held  in  Bal- 
timore the  7th  of  2d  mooth,  1803,  the  Commit- 
tee on  Indian  Concerns  agreed  to  make  the 
following  application  to  the  Meeting  for  Suffer- 
ings of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  : 

^'We  of  the  Committee  on  Indian  affairs  ap- 
pointed by  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting,  impressed 
with  an  idea  of  the  importance  of  our  appoint- 
ment, and  with  a  full  persuasion,  that  the  situa- 
tion of  our  business  requires  speedy  attention, 
as  the  obstructions  that  have  heretofore  prevented 

17^  APPKNJ>IX. 

Friends  from  moving  forward,  in  extending  to 
the  Western  Indians  the  benefits  some  years 
ago  contemplated  by  the  Yearly  Meeting,  are 
now  removed,  and  considering  the  distant  situa- 
tion of  many  of  our  members  from  each  other, 
and  the  difficulty  and  even  impracticability  of  ob- 
taining a  general  meeting;  we  have  been  in- 
duced to  believe  it  right  to  submit  the  subject 
to  the  consideration  of  the  Meeting  for  Sufferings 
for  their  cordial  sympathy  and  advice,  and  if 
they  may  believe  it  right,  for  their  co-opera- 
tion also.    Signed  by 

Evan  Thomas,  Moses  Dillon, 

John  M'Kim,  Jonathan  Wright, 

David  Brown,  George  Ellicott, 

Elias  Ellicott,  Joel  Wright." 

The  Meeting  for  Sufferings  entered  cordially 
into  sympathy  with  the  members  of  the  Indian 
Committee  in  their  benevolent  enterprise,  and 
they  were  encouraged  to  appoint  a  Committee  to 
procure  agricultural,  and  other  useful  implements, 
and  have  them  conveyed  in  seasonable  time  tO) 
Fort  Wayne. 

The  Committee  on  Indian  concerns  met  again 
in  Baltimore  the  10th  of  10th  month,  1803,  and 
drew  up  a  report  for  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting; 
in  which  they  related  that  in  consequence  of 
information  received  from  the  Western  Indians, 
and  the  prohibition  by  the  President  of  the 
United  States  of  the  sale  of  spirituous   liquors 


amongst  them,  "  the  Committee  had  been  im- 
pressed with  the  belief  that  the  time  for  an 
earnest  commencement  of  the  benevolent  inten- 
tions of  the  Yearly  Meeting  had  arrived;  they 
had  accordingly  purchased  for  the  use  of  those 
Indians"  agricultural  implements  of  various 
kinds  ''which  were  sent  in  packages  to  Pittsburg, 
from  whence  they  were  to  be  immediately  con- 
veyed to  Fort  Wayne,  and  delivered  as  a  present 
from  the  Society  of  Friends  of  Baltimore  Yearly 
Meeting,  to  the  Little  Turtle,  and  other  chiefs; 
to  be  disposed  of  by  them,  to  such  of  their  peo- 
ple as  they  knew  were  desirous  of  using  them." 
They  also  reported  that  they  had  had  some  cor- 
respondence with  William  Wells,  the  Indian 
agent  at  Fort  Wayne,  but  had  not  yet  heard  of 
the  arrival  of  the  agricultural  implements  at 
their  destination.  William  Wells  had  replied 
to  their  enquiries  on  behalf  of  the  Indians,  and  in- 
formed them  as  his  opinion,  that  ^'  the  suppres- 
sion of  liquors  in  that  country  is  the  best  thing 
that  has  ever  been  done  for  the  Indians,  by  the 
United  States;  that  within  a  year,  not  one  In- 
dian had  been  killed;  whilst  there  had  never 
been  a  year  before  since  the  treaty  of  Gren- 
ville  in  which  there  were  less  than  ten 
killed,  and  some  years  as  many  as  thirty." 

The  report  was  signed  on  behalf  of  the  Com- 
mittee, by  Evan  Thomas,  Joel  Wright,  and 
James  Mendenhall. 

To  this  report  a  postscript  was  added,  that  in 


consequence  of  the  decease  of  some  of  the  first 
members  of  the  Indian  Committee  (their  names,, 
however,  not  given,)  and  a  distant  situation  and  i 
other  causes  preventing  the  attendance  of  many, 
"it  was  believed  a  benefit  might  arise  from  the 
discontinuance  of  the  present  Committee,  and  the 
appointment  of  another." 

Their  report  was  read,  and  their  request  for  ai 
new  Committee  considered  at  Baltimore  Yearly. 
Meeting,  held  by  adjournments  from  the  10th i 
day  of  10th  month,  to  the  14th  of  the  same  in- 
clusive, 1803;  and  at  the  next  meeting  of  the' 
members  of  the  Committee,  on  the  14th  of  10th  i 
month,  1803,  a  minute  of  the  Yearly  Meetin* 
informed  them  of  the  appointment  of  the  follow- 
ing Friends  to  constitute  a  Committee  on  Indian 
Affairs;  they  were  desired  by  the  minute  of 
their  appointment,  "  to  pay  such  attention  to  the 
interesting  concern  as  they  may  be  enabled  to 
render,"   to  wit: 

Evan  Thomas,  Isaac  Tyson, 

Joel  Wright,  Israel  Wilson, 

Elisha  Tyson,  Henry  Mills, 

Edward  Stabler,  Jonas  Cattell, 

George  Ellicott,  David  G reave, 

Jonathan  Wright,  Elias  Ellicott, 

Gerard  T.  Hopkins,        Jonathan  Ellicott, 
John  Ellicott,  Benjamin  Ellicott, 

Asa  Moore,  Philip  E.  Thomas, 

Caleb  Bently,  Thomas  Moore, 

William  Kirk,  Samuel  Snowden, 

Wm.  Stabler,  of  Sandy  Spring. 


Immediately  after  their  organization  Philip  E. 
Thomas  was  appointed  Secretary,  and  Elias  EUi- 
cott  Treasurer  of  the  Indian  Committee,  Philip 
E.  Thomas  continued  to  perform  the  duties  of 
Secretary  to  the  Committee,  with  untiring  zeal 
and  ability,  from  the  date  of  his  appointment  to 
the  time  of  his  decease,  which  took  place  the  1st 
day  of  9th  month,  1861,  Elias  Ellicott  had 
been  Treasurer  of  the  Indian  Committee  from 
the  period  of  its  origin  in  the  year  1795.  After 
this  reappointment  he  continued  faithfully  to 
perform  the  trust  confided  to  him,  until  his  de- 
cease in    10th  month,  1827. 

At  the  next  meeting  of  the  Committee  on  In- 
dian aflFairs,  held  the  6th  of  2d  month,  1804,  a 
letter  was  received  from  the  Little  Turtle,  and 
the  Five  Medals,  Miami,  and  Wyandot  chiefs, 
which  resulted  in  the  appointment  of  a  delega- 
tion to  visit  them,  of  whom  Gerard  T.  Hopkins 
and  Greorge  Ellicott  alone  performed  the  ser- 

The  Friends  who  accomplished  this  journey 
together  have  now  for  many  years  been  num- 
bered with  the  dead.  Greorge  Ellicott  departed 
this  life  the  9th  of  4th  month,  1832,  aged  72 
years,  and  Gerard  T.  Hopkins  died  nearly  two 
years  afterwards  on  the  27th  of  3d  month,  1834, 
in  the  66th  year  of  his  age. 

Philip  Dennis,  who  accompanied  them  to 
Fort  Wayne  with  the  intention  of  instructing 
the  Indians  in  agriculture,  faithfully  performed 


the  duty,  so  far  as  he  alone  was  concerned.  The 
Little  Turtle  had  in  one  of  his  interviews  with 
the  Friends  told  them  "  our  young  men  are  not  | 
so  much  disposed  to  be  industrious  as  we  could  [ 
desire."  Philip  Dennis  found  this  represen- 
tation of  them  fully  verified  in  his  experience. 
After  he  had,  with  some  assistance  from  the  In- 
dians, enclosed  his  plantation  with  a  rude  fence, 
only  one,  or  at  the  most  two  of  the  red  men 
evinced  any  disposition  to  labor.  They  would 
take  a  seat  either  on  the  fence,  or  in  the  trees, 
near  the  premises,  and  watch  him  with  apparent 
interest  in  his  daily  engagement  of  ploughing 
and  hoeing,  but  without  offering  to  lend  a  help- 
ing hand.  He  found  the  land  very  fertile,  and 
raised  a  large  crop  of  corn  and  other  products, 
which,  after  gathering  into  a  storehouse  he  built 
for  the  purpose  in  the  autumn,  he  left  in  charge 
of  some  of  the  neighboring  chiefs  for  a  winter 
supply  for  the  necessitous  members  of  the  tribes 
for  whom  he  had  labored,  and  returned  to  his 
home  at  Ellicott's  Mills. 

Philip   Dennis  lived  some  years  afterwards, 
a  respectable  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends, . 
and  died  on   his  farm  in  Montgomery  County, 

The  promise  made  at  the  commencement  of 
the  foregoing  brief  history  of  the  Indian  Com- 
mittee of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting,  from  its 
appointment  in   1795  to  1804,  has  thus  been 


performed,  and  the  limits  I  had  prescribed  for 
this  Appendix  have  been  already  exceeded ;  but 
the  very  interesting  character  of  the  concern  in- 
duces me  (before  producing  a  copy  of  the  Trea- 
ty of  Grenville,  which  from  its  influence  on  the 
condition  of  the  Indian  Tribes  ought  to  be  pre- 
sented to  the  reader)  to  add  the  following  ac- 

From  the  last  meeting  of  the  committee,  as 
above  related,  in  1804,  to  the  commencement  of 
the  war  with  Great  Britain,  the  affairs  of  the 
Indians  continued  to  increase  in  importance,  and 
their  friends  were  frequently  flattered  with  the 
hope  of  a  successful  and  permanent  settlement  of 
the  Tribes,  to  whom  the  United  States  under 
certain  conditions  had  guaranteed  their  lands,  in 
the  neighborhood  of  the  Lakes.  Philanthropists, 
not  only  in  our  own  country,  but,  also,  of  the 
more  enlightened  European  nations,  continued 
to  accord  to  the  efi'orts  of  the  Friends  of  this 
country  the  meed  of  their  approbation,  and  from 
members  of  the  Society  of  Friends  in  G-reat 
Britain,  the  Indian  Committees  of  Phila- 
delphia and  Baltimore  received  donations  of 
money,  paid  to  them  in  two  instalments  of  several 
thousand  dollars  each,  to  be  applied  to  the  im- 
provement of  the  condition  of  the  Indians,  which 
greatly  increased  their  opportunities  of  useful- 
nei's ;  to  these  donations  was  afterwards  added 
a  bequest  from  a  friend  of  Ireland,  of  much  less 


amount,  it  is  true,  but,  nevertheless,  a  valuable 
contribution  to  the  cause  of  humanity. 

Portions  of  these  diflFerent  sums  of  money  were 
faithfully  applied,  with  those  collected  from 
their  own  members,  in  giving  encouragement 
to  the  civilization  of  the  Indians ;  in  the  pro- 
motion of  a  good  system  of  agriculture  ;  in  sup- 
porting schools;  in  building  small  mills  for 
grinding  Indian  corn,  and  in  endeavoring  to 
discountenance  the  hard  servitude  of  their 

On  the  establishment  of  the  Yearly  Meeting 
of  Ohio,  in  1813,  which  had  originally  formed 
a  part  of  that  of  Baltimore,  the  Indian  Com- 
mittee of  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  faithfully 
divided  the  money  remaining  on  hand,  with  the 
Indian  Committee  of  Ohio  Yearly  Meeting,  to 
be  applied  in  accordance  with  the  instructions 
received  for  its  expenditure ;  but  the  unsettle- 
ment  produced  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Cana- 
dian frontier,  by  the  war  with  the  British  na- 
tion, produced  its  effect  on  the  friendly  tribes, 
and,  after  much  consultation  among  themselves, 
and  repeated  visits  of  Chiefs  to  Washington, 
they  concluded  to  cede  all  the  lands  to  which 
they  had  any  title,  in  Ohio,  to  the  United  States, 
and  remove  further  west.  This  was  in  1817.'*' 
"  The  Indians  were  at  their  option  to  remain  on 
the  ceded  lands,  subject  to  the  laws  of  the  State 
or  country." 

*  Emma  Willard's  American  Republic. 


Recollections  of  the   Little    Turtle  and  other 

The  Little  Turtle,  with  several  other  Chiefs, 
spent  two  days  at  Ellicott's  Mills,  during  Christ- 
mas week  of  1807,  attended  by  Wm.  Wells,  the 
United  States  Agent  for  Fort  Wayne,  as  inter- 
preter. They  had  been  to  Washington  on  busi- 
ness, had  had  an  interview  with  the  Indian  Com- 
mittee in  Baltimore,  and  were  returning  home 
through  the  State  of  Maryland. 

G-eorge  Ellicott  called  to  see  them  soon  after 
their  arrival,  and  gave  them  an  invitation  to 
dine  the  next  day,  at  his  house,  which  was  not 
far  distant  from  the  hotel  where  they  lodged. 
The  delegation  was  composed  of  the  following 
persons  : — The  Little  Turtle  and  Rusheville, 
Chiefs  of  the  Miami  nation  ;  the  Beaver  and 
Crow  of  the  Delawares ;  two  Shawanese  Chiefs, 
and  Marpau  and  the  Raven,  Chiefs  of  the 
Potowatomies  j  of  the  two  last  named  each  was 
accompanied  by  his  wife.  All  accepted  the  in- 
invitation  but  Marpau,  who  positively  declined 
both  for  himself  and  his  wife.  He  was  of  a  very 
warlike  disposition,  and  the  brother  of  Tecumseh, 
and  the  Prophet,  who,  in  1811,  openly  revolted 
from  their  allegiance  to  the  United  States,  and 
were  the  cause  of  much  bloodshed  on  the  Cana- 
dian frontier.  Already  the  spirit  of  disaffection 
had  taken  hold  of  his  mind  ;  he  refused  to  wear 
any   article  of  clothing   manufactured   by  the 


white  people,  and  was  by  no  means  reserved  in 
his  expressions  of  hatred  toward  the  whole  race, 
who,  he  maintained,  had  violently  wrested  from 
them  all  their  most  valuable  possessions.  Nor 
did  he  hesitate  to  express  his  determination, 
with  aid  of  his  two  powerful  brothers,  to  regain 
all  the  lands  which  had  originally  belonged  to 
them,  after  putting  to  death  all  those  who  now 
occupied  them. 

In  order  to  give  him  favorable  impressions  of 
the  power  of  the  Federal  government,  and  re- 
lieve his  mind  of  the  idea  of  taking  up  arms 
against  it,  the  other  members  of  the  delega- 
tion, all  friendly  Indians  except  himself  and 
the  Raven,  had  persuaded  him  to  make  the 
journey,  hoping  he  would  discover,  as  he  passed 
along,  so  many  evidences  of  the  strength  of  the 
people  he  professed  to  despise,  as  to  be  induced 
to  prefer  peace  to  war,  on  any  terms.  No  favor- 
able change,  however,  had  been  the  result.  He 
had  refused  every  civility  tendered  him  while  in 
Washington,  remaining  shut  up  with  his  wife, 
in  his  apartments,  while  all  the  rest  of  his  com- 
panions partook  of  every  enjoyment  offered  them. 
He  had  refused  to  meet  the  Indian  Committee 
in  Baltimore,  (but  was  afterwards  induced  to  do 
so,)  and  remained  in  the  same  mood  on  his  arri- 
val at  Ellicott's  Mills  ;  and  although  George 
Ellicott  assured  him  he  could  promise  him  a 
welcome  and  kind  treatment  at  his  house,  he 
still  declined.     The  Little  Turtle  endeavored  to 


change  his  purpose ;  rallied  him  on  his  obsti- 
nacy, ill-humor  and  laziness,  and  told  him  he 
was  too  large  a  man  to  give  so  poor  a  display  of 
Indian  politeness,  and  that  he  would  return  to 
his  home  in  the  same  state  of  igijorance  in  which 
he  had  left  it;  but  all  to  no  purpose.  He  bore 
the  raillery  with  apparent  good  humor,  but  re- 
mained unmoved.  Marpau  was  of  very  large 
stature,  and  in  the  prime  of  manly  vigor.  His 
dress  was  entirely  made  up  of  the  skins  of  wild 
animals,  which  had  been  killed  by  his  own 

Having  heard  so  much  of  the  Little  Turtle, 
I  determined  to  be  present  when  he  and  the 
other  Chiefs  were  introduced  at  the  house,  where 
they  were  to  be  entertained  as  guests.  He  was 
the  first  to  enter  the  parlor,  and  bowed  grace- 
fully as  he  was  introduced  to  the  family,  and 
made  a  short  address,  in  which  he  acknowledged 
the  pleasure  it  afibrded  him  thus  to  meet  the 
I  wife  and  children  of  a  friend  to  whom  he  felt 
obliged,  and  of  whom  he  entertained  the  highest 

The  interpreter  then  introduced  the  rest  of 
the  party,  who  shook  hands,  and  took  their  seats. 
Afterwards  a  pleasant  conversation  took  place 
j between  the  Miami  Chiefs,  the  Interpreter,  and 
isome  of  the  residents  of  the  village,  in  which 
I  the  Indians  drew  a  comparison  between  savage 
land  civilized  life,  and  in  favor  of  civilization. 
The  Little  Turtle  was  anxious  to  have  a  flour 


mill  erected  in  his  town,  and  appeared  earnestly 
desirous  of  promoting  the  improvement  of  his 
people.  The  Shawanese,  the  Raven  and  his 
wife,  and  the  Beaver  and  Crow  listened  in 

The  dress  and  mantle  of  the  Raven  bore  a 
close  resemblance  to  those  worn  by  Marpau, 
and  were  of  similar  material.  He  was  esteemed 
the  greatest  hunter  of  the  Potowatomies,  and 
occasionally  visited  the  Rocky  Mountains  in 
pursuit  of  game,  and  on  his  last  excursion  to 
that  distant  range,  had  killed  a  grizzly  bear  of 
immense  weight  and  size,  whose  skin,  dressed 
with  the  claws  and  teeth  attached,  he  wore  on 
this  occasion,  thrown  over  his  shoulders.  His 
face  was  painted;  the  cheeks  and  forehead 
black,  and  across  one  of  his  cheeks  was  a  heavy 
dash  of  Vermillion,  which  looked  like  a  deep  and 
gaping  flesh  wound.  His  hair,  which  was  thick 
and  coarse,  was  cut  about  six  inches  long  in 
front,  and  hung  about  his  face,  but  was  its  full 
length  behind,  and  tied  in  several  places  with 
bands  of  buckskin,  and  powdered  with  red  paint ; 
and  he  wore  on  the  top  of  his  head,  a  small 
coronet  of  eagle's  feathers.  Attached  to  an 
embroidered  belt  hung  his  tobacco  pouch,  made 
of  the  entire  skin  of  a  beaver,  and  by  its  side 
his  tomahawk  and  scalping  knife. 

With  his  large  and  muscular  proportions,  ac- 
companied by  the  disfigurements  of  the  paint, 
he  was  only  saved  from  the  appearance  of  a  bar= 


barous  and  unrelenting  savage,  by  a  countenance 
expressive  of  the  utmost  good  humor. 

The  wife  of  the  Raven  was  a  young  and  hand- 
some woman,  of  a  modest  and  downcast  expres- 
sion.  She  did  not  seem  to  entertain  the  preju- 
dices  against  civilized  manufactures,  which  ex- 
isted in  her  husband's  mind,  and  wore  a  blue 
cloth  habit,  though  made  in  Indian  style;  a  hat, 
covered  with  braided  ribbon,  feathers  of  different 
sorts,  and  tinsel  ornaments.  Her  moccasins  were 
beautifully  embroidered  with  moose  hair,  inter- 
spersed with  plaited  rows  of  porcupine's  quills; 
her  necklace  was  made  of  several  rows  of  beads 
of  many  colors,  and  her  ear  ornaments,  which 
were  drooping,  and  hung  nearly  down  to  her 
shoulders,  were  also  of  beads;  and  she  wore, 
wrapped  around  her  person,  a  fioe  Makinaw 

The  Little  Turtle  and  Rusheville,  the  Beaver 
ind  Crow,  and  the  two  Shawanese,  were  dressed 
[n  a  costume  usually  worn  by  our  own  citizens 
pf  the  time  :  coats  of  blue  cloth,  gilt  buttons, 
Dantaloons  of  the  same  color,  and  buff  waistcoats ; 
)ut  they  all  wore  leggings,  moccasins,  and  large 
^old  rings  in  their  ears.  The  Little  Turtle  ex- 
ceeded all  his  brother  Chiefs  iu  dignity  of  ap- 
)earance— a  dignity  which  resulted  from  the 
iharacter  of  his  mind.  He  was  of  medium 
tature,  with  a  complexion  of  the  palest  copper 
ihade,  and  did  not  wear  paint.  His  hair  was 
tull  suit,  and  without  any  admixture  of  "-rev 
17  •^' 


although  from  what  he  said  of  his  age,  at  Fort 
Wayne,  in  1804,  being  then  fifty-three,  he  must 
at  this  time  have  been  fifty-seven  years  old. 
His  dress  was  completed  by  a  Ions,  red,  military 
sash  around  the  waist,  and  his  hat  (a  chapeau 
bras)  was  ornamented  by  a  red  feather.  Imme- 
diately on  entering  the  house,  he  took  ofi"  his 
hat,  and  carried  it  under  his  arm  during  the 
rest  of  the  visit.  His  appearance  and  manners, 
which  were  gracefnl  and  agreeable,  in  an  un- 
common degree,  were  admired  by  all  who  made 
his  acquaintance. 

When  seated  at  table  they  seemed  to  enjoy  tht 
repast  which  was  set  before  them.  A  large 
dish  of  hominy — a  national  dish  with  the  In 
dians — had  with  a  variety  of  other  dishes  beei 
served  up,  especially  in  reference  to  their  tastes 
and  was  very  acceptable  to  them.  The  Raven 
on  taking  his  seat,  immediately  pointed  it  out  t^ 
his  wife,  who  sat  at  his  side,  and  spoke  for  th 
first  time  since  his  entrance,  to  request  to  b 
helped  bountifully  to  the  hominy,  having  see:, 
nothing  he  liked  so  well  since  he  had  left  th 

The  visit  ended  very  agreeably ;  the  deput£ 
tion  shook  hands  with  the  Friends  who  had  er 
tertained  them,  and  returned  to  their  bote 
They  found  Marpau  and  his  wife  quietly  seate 
by  the  fireside,  but  soon  understood  they  ha 
just  returned  from  a  walk,  having  passed  th 


day  on  the  hills,  and  in  the  fields  on  the  banks 
of  the  Patapsco. 

We  were  told  that  they  spent  a  part  of  the 
day  seated  upon  the  rocks,  contemplating  the 
scenery  before  them ;  they  were  afterwards  at- 
tracted to  a  point  where  hickory  nuts  and  per- 
simmons were  abundant,  and  the  Chief  was  seen 
climbing  the  trees,  and  gathering  the  persim- 
mons and  nuts,  and  throwing  them  down  to  his 
wife,  who  seemed  fond  of  them.  Thus,  they  had 
passed  the  day,  and  looked  refreshed  thereby. 

Both  Marpau  and  the  Kaven,  whilst  on  their 
journey,  were  careful  to  present  themselves,  on 
all  occasions,  where  there  was  a  chance  of  their 
being  seen,  painted  and  adorned  in  their  most 
approved  style.  Thus,  while  in  Washington 
and  Baltimore,  although  in  comparative  retire- 
ment, as  he  did  not  go  out,  Marpau  was  said  to 

'  spend  two  or  three  hours  daily,  in  the  duties  of 
the  toilet,  painting  his  face,  dressing  his  hair, 
and  arranging  his  appearance,  by  a  small  mirror, 
held  up  before  him  by  his  wife,  who^stood  near  him 
for  the  purpose,  pronouncing  occasionally  on  the 
eflfect  produced,  and  giving  instructions.  Similar 
attentions  were  conferred  by  the  wife  of  the 
Baven  on  her  husband,  but  as  he  was  of  lower 
rank,  and  rather  older  than  Marpau,  his  toilet 
was  less  elaborate,  and  occupied  less  time. 

The   next  day  after   this  ramble,  the  Potawo- 

!  tamies  all  went  together  to  visit  the  places  where 
Marpau  and  his  wife  had  walked  the  day  before. 


The  other  Indians,  with  the  interpreter,  examined 
all  the  objects  of  interest  in  the  neighborhood. 
They  had  begun  to  be  aware  of  the  importance 
of  mechanical  operations,  and  spoke  with  as 
much  approbation  as  an  Indian  ever  speaks  of 
things  which  he  admires,  of  the  ingenuity  ex- 
hibited in  the  flour  and  paper  mills.  The  next 
day  all  the  deputation  left  for  their  homes  in  the 

About  a  week  subsequent  to  their  departure, 
a  member  of  the  Indian  Committee  on  passing 
by  the  hotel  at  Ellicott's  Mills,  saw  the  western 
public  stage  arrive  with  a  party  of  Indians  and 
their  interpreter,  and  was  much  surprised  to  find 
among  them  the  Delaware  Chief,  the  Beaver. 
The  Beaver,  according  to  the  statement  of  the, 
interpreter,  had  left  his  party  at  Cumberland, 
and  had  joined  the  present  deputation  in  order 
to  present  the  grievances  of  his  nation  to  the  atten- 
tion of  the  President  of  the  United  States.  For 
several  years  their  annuities,  both  as  regarding 
goods  and  money,  had  been  badly  paid,  and  during 
his  recent  visit  to  "Washington,  William  Wells 
had  uniformly  objected  to  allude  to  the  subject, 
under  various  pretexts.  The  Beaver  thought 
there  was  something  wrong  somewhere,  and  was 
determined  to  seek  redress.  The  interpreter 
asked  advice  of  the  Friend  who  met  him  at  the 
hotel,  and  was  encouraged  to  make  a  faithful 
statement  of  the  wrongs  done  to  the   Delaware 


tribe.  An  investigation  was  made  in  Washing- 
ton by  the  President's  orders. 

William  Wells  was  found  to  be  a  defaulter 
to  a  large  amount^  and  was  discharged  from  the 
agency  at  Fort  Wayne ;  he  shortly  after  went  to 
live  in  Canada,  and  in  1811,  joined  the  party  of 
Tecumseh  and  the  Prophet,  in  their  warfare 
against  the  United  States,  very  contrary  to  the 
desires  of  the  Little  Turtle,  who  with  his  allies 
had  remained  deaf  to  all  the  arguments  of  Te- 
cumseh, loyal  to  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  and  faithful  in  his  friendship  to  his 
friends  the  Quakers. 

William  Wells  after  a  short  residence  in 
Canada,  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Indians  whom 
he  had  defrauded  in  his  agency,  and  was  put  to 
death  with  great  barbarity.  The  Little  Turtle 
had  died  a  short  time  before,  of  an  attack  of  the 
gout  in  the  chest. 

The  following  matters  of  interest  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  Indians,  together  with  the  copy  of 
the  Treaty  of  Greeneville,  has  been  kindly  fur- 
nished from  the  records  of  Washington,  by  a 
gentleman  of  that  city. 

"  The  treaty  of  Grenville*  was  concluded  on 
the  3d  day  of  August,  1795,  at  the  Head  Quar- 

*The    treaty   purports   to    have    been     made    at 
"  Greeneville,'-  but  the  place  is  frequently,  perhaps 
most  generally,  written  "  Grenville. 


ters  of  General  Anthony  Wayne,  commanding 
the  army  of  the  United  States,  northwest  of  the 
Ohio,  between  that  officer,  acting;  as  Commission- 
er for  the  United  States,  and  the  Sachems,  Chiefs 
and  warriors  of  twelve  tribes  of  Indians.  The 
treaty  was  mainly  the  result  of  a  victory  ob- 
tained by  General  Wayne  over  the  Indians  in  a 
battle  fought  the  previous  year,  near  the  Mau- 
mee*  river,  and  terminated  the  hostilities  which 
for  nearly  twenty  years  had  been  carried  on  be- 
tween the  Indians,  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  and 
the  white  settlers  in  Kentucky  and  western  Vir- 
ginia. Sundry  abortive  efforts  had  been  made 
by  the  government  to  procure  peace.  Partial 
treaties  were  entered  into,  which  had  no 
effect  in  restraining  the  great  body  of  the  tribes, 
and  several  military  expeditions,  which  had  been 
sent  into  their  country  to  subdue  them,  met  with 
disasters,  and  by  their  failure  only  strengthened 
the  Indians.  In  April,  1793,  three  Commission- 
ers, with  ample  powers,  were  sent  to  negotiate  a 
treaty,  and  were  intrusted  to  offer  much  better 
terms  than  were  afterwards  granted  the  Indians 
by  the  treaty  of  Greeneville.  In  the  instructions 
given  them  it  was  stated,  'Hhat  the  Society  of 
Friends  had,  with  the  approbation  of  the  President 
of  the  United  States,  decided  to  send  some  of 
their  respectable  members  in  order  to  contribute 
their  influence  to  induce  the  hostile  Indians  to 

*At  the  time  of  the  treaty  called  the  Miami  of  the 


a  peace,"  but  I  do  not  find  from  the  Journal  of 
the  Commissioners  that  any  Friends  attended. 

The  negotiation  failed.  The  Indians  insisted 
upon  the  removal  of  the  white  settlements  and 
Forts  from  the  country  northwest  of  the  Ohio, 
which  the  Commissioners  refused  to  accede  to, 
maintaining  the  claims  of  the  United  States  to 
certain  portions  of  the  country  under  treaties 
from  other  tribes  who  were  believed  competent 
to  make  title  to  it. 

By  the  treaty  of  Greeneville  the  Indians  ce- 
ded to  the  United  States  a  tract  of  country  com- 
prising about  twenty  five  thousand  square  miles, 
i  or  sixteen  million  acres,  some  of  which  however 
was  included  in  previous  grants  from  other  tribes. 
They  also  ceded  sixteen  smaller  tracts  as  sites 
for  Forts,  trading  stations,  &c.  They  received 
in  consideration  of  the  cession,  twenty  thousand 
dollars  in  goods,  and  permanent  annuities  amount- 
ing to  eleven  thousand  dollars;  $9,500  in  goods 
delivered,  the  cost  of  delivery  and  distribution 
being  $1,500.  The  annuities,  at  5  percent,  re- 
presents a  capital  of  $220,000;  thus  the  entire 
payment  would  be  $240,000  for  3  6,000,000 
acres  of  land,  or  one  cent  and  a  half  per  acre. 

The  annuities  of  several  of  the  tribes  com- 
menced at  once,  and  are  still  paid  regularly 
under  the  treaty  of  Grreeneville,  and  they  re- 
ceive additional  annuities  under  other  treaties. 
Indeed  all  the  tribes  who  were  parties  to  the 
treaty  of  Greeneville,  received  regular  annuities 


from  the  Government,  but  I  have  not  been  able 
to  trace  in  them  the  specific  amounts  granted  by 
that  treaty. 

Mem.  of  the  terms  of  the  Treaty. 

Preamble  :  that  the  treaty  is  to  end  a  de- 
structive war,  settle  all  controversies,  and  restore 
harmony,  &c. 

Art.  1.  Peace  re-established. 

Art.  2.  Prisoners  on  both  sides  to  be  re- 

Art.  3.  Indians  cede  all  lands  east  of  a  line 
running  from  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga,  irreg- 
ularly, to  the  Ohio  opposite  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Kentucky  river.  And  cede  16  specified 
tracts.  And  free  passage  to  the  whites  through 
certain  routes  through  their  country. 

Art.  4.  The  U.  S.  rehnquish  all  land  west  of 
the  boundary,  except  150,000  acres  granted  Gene- 
ral Clarke  ;  the  post  of  Vincennes  ;  the  French 
settlement  on  the  Illinois,  &c. ;  and  Fort  Massoe, 
and  give  $20,000  in  goods  and  annuities,  amount- 
ing to  19,500. 

Art.  5.  Indians  to  be  protected  in  the  occupa- 
tion of  their  lands  as  reserved  to  them ;  but  to 
sell  only  to  the  U.  States. 

Art.  6.  Indians  may  expel  settlers  from  their 

Art.  7.  Indians  may  hunt  on  lands  ceded  to 
the  U.  S.,  [until  settled.] 

ArPENDlX.  197 

Art.  8.  Trade  to  be  conducted  by  licensed 

Art.  9.  Neither  party  to  retaliate  injuries, 
but  offenders  to  be  punished  by  their  own  gov- 
ernment, and  Indians  are  to  give  notice  of  hos- 
tile designs. 

Art.  10.  All  other  treaties  within  the 
of  this  treaty  cancelled. 

The  following  tribes  were  parties  to  the  treaty 
of  Greeneville;  the  figures  prefixed  to  the  name 
of  each  tribe  shows  the  number  of  chiefs  repre- 
senting it,  and  proves  that  at  the  date  of  the 
treaty,  the  Indians  were  a  numerous  people,  viz: 

10  Wyandots,  17  Delawares, 
9  Shawanese,  7  Ottawas, 

11  Chippewas,  2-1  Potowatamies, 
5   Miamis,  3  Eel-river, 

3  Weas,  3    Kickapoos, 

3  Piankashaws,  3  Kaskaskias. 

For  the  United  States,  Anthony  Wayne  was 
sole  Commissioner. 

The  witnesses  were  : 

H.  DeButts,  Aid  and  Sec'y  to  Gen.  Wayne; 
W.  H.   Harrison,  afterwards  President   of  the 

U.  S.,  Aid  to  Gen.  Wayne  ; 
J.  Lewis,  Aid  to  Geu.  Wayne  ; 
James  O'Hara,  Quarter  Master  General; 
i  John   Mills,  Major,  &c. ; 
Caleb    Soran,  P.    M.  G.    U.    S.  ; 
George  Demter,  Lieutenant,  &c. ; 


Vigo,  [an  old  French   settler — a  very  remark- 
able   man]; 
P.  La    Fontaine, 
Ant.    Lasselle, 
Jno.    Beaubien, 
David  Jones,  C.  U.  S.  A.; 
Lewis  Beaufait, 
R.  Lachambor, 
James  Pepen, 
Baties   Contien, 
P.  Navarre; 

Wm.    Wells,  Sonora,  Interpreter; 
Jacques    Lasselle,    do. ; 
M.    Morins,    do.  ; 
Bt.  Sansfrainte,  do.  ; 
Christopher  Miller,  do. ; 
Robert  Wilson,   do., 
Abraham   Williams,   do. ; 
Isaac    Zane,  do. 

'^',   ^  hti    ^^vr^  .  /9^l. 

-^^  /%  ^  '    -Hi/I?